Morphometric analysis of glenoid cavity of dry scapulae and its role in shoulder prosthesis

Md. Jawed Akhtar, Bipin Kumar, Nafees Fatima, Vinod Kumar


Background: The lateral angle of scapula becomes truncated and broadened and form the glenoid cavity which shows variable morphology. There is a notch present on its anterosuperior part which gives its different shape. When this glenoid notch is indistinct its shape is piriform, when it is distinct it looks like inverted comma shape and when it is absent its oval shape. The shoulder joint is one among the most commonly dislocated joints in the body. The fracture of glenoid with dislocations is very common in the trauma. The detail knowledge about variation in anatomy of glenoid cavity like different shape, size and dimensions are important during designing and fitting of glenoid component for total shoulder arthroplasty. The objective of present study was to obtain anthropometric data of scapulae and the glenoid cavity specifically the diameters and various shape of glenoid belongs to population of Bihar and compare it to findings from other races of the world.

Methods: The present study was a cross sectional study which has been carried out on 228 undamaged dry adult human scapulae in which 126 belongs to right side and 102 belongs to left side. The age and gender of the bones used in the study was not predetermined.

Results: The most common shape of glenoid cavity recorded in the present study was pear shape (50.44%) followed by inverted comma shape (35.96%). The least common shape was oval (13.6%). The mean length of scapula was observed as 135.07±14.23mm, the mean breadth of scapula was 97.55±9.63 mm, the mean supero inferior glenoid diameter was 35.80±3.14mm, the mean antero posterior glenoid diameter 1 was 23.63±2.50mm, and the mean antero posterior glenoid diameter 2 was 16.17±2.24mm and mean glenoid cavity index was 66.40±8.14%. In all the above measurements bilateral differences was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: The knowledge about the different shape and dimensions of glenoid are very important during designing and fitting of glenoid component for total shoulder arthroplasty. It is also helpful during evaluation of different pathological conditions like rotator cuff disease, osteochondral defects and Bankart lesion. Since the present study is conducted on a limited number of scapulae further cadaveric, radiological and clinical studies are indicated.



Glenoid cavity, Glenoid cavity index, Glenoid notch, Shoulder prosthesis

Full Text:



Johnson D. Pectoral Girdle, Shoulder region and Axilla. In: Standring S, Borley NR, Collins P, Crossman AR, Gatzoulis MA, Healy JC, et al, editors. Gray’s Anatomy, The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. 40th ed. Churchill Livingstone; 2013;791-822.

Prescher A, Klumpen T. The glenoid notch and its relation to the shape of the glenoid cavity of the scapula. J Anat. 1997;190:457-60.

Churchill RS, Brems JJ, Kotschi H. Glenoid size, inclination, and version: An anatomic study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2001;10(4):327-32.

Mamatha T, Pai SR, Murlimanju BV, Kalthur SG, Pai MM, Kumar B. Morphometry of Glenoid Cavity. Online J Health Allied Scs. 2011;10(3):1-4.

Rajput HB, Vyas KK, Shroff BD. A Study of Morphological Patterns of Glenoid Cavity of Scapula. Natl J Med Res. 2012;2(4):504-7.

Gamal Hamed ESH. Morphometry of Glenoid fossa in Adult Egyptian Scapulae. Int J Anat Res. 2015;3(2):1138-42.

Sarwar MS, Diwan CV, Rahamn H, Raheman H, Moosa SM. A Morphometeric study of glenoid cavity of adult human scapula. International Journal of Recent Trends in Science and Technology. 2015;15(3):486-90.

Wael Amin NED, Mona Hassan MA. A Morphometric Study of the Patterns and Variations of the Acromion and Glenoid Cavity of the Scapulae in Egyptian Population. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2015;9(8):8-11.

Coskun N, Karaali K, Cevikol C, Demirel BM, Sindel M. Anatomical basics and variations of the scapula in Turkish adults. Saudi Med J. 2006;27(9):1320-5.

Patel SM, Shah MA, Vora RK, Goda JB, Rathod SP, Shah S. Morphometric analysis of scapula to determine sexual dimorphism. Int J Med Public Health. 2013;3:207-10.

Flower WH, Garson JG. The scapular index as a race character in man. Journal of Anat physiol. 1879;14(1):13-7.

Singhal G, Rathod H, Patel A, Modi P, Prajapati S, Parmar R. A study of measurements and indices of human scapula at Jamnagar Medical College. Int J Res Med. 2013;2(1):65-8.

Krishnaiah M, Nagaraj S, Praveen Kumar M, Sherke AR. Study of scapular measurements and scapular indices of Andhra Pradesh region. IOSR Journal of dental and medical sciences. 2014;13(6):117-20.

Frutos LR. Determination of sex from the clavicle and scapula in a Guatemalan contemporary rural indigenous population. Am J Forensic Med and Pathol. 2002;23:284-8.

Kavita P, Jaskaran S, Geeta. Morphology of coracoids process and glenoid cavity in adult human scapulae. International Journal of Analytical, Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences. 2013;2(2):19-22.

Ozer I, Katayama K, Sagir M, Gulec E. Sex determination using the scapula in medieval skeletons from East Anatolia. Coll Antropol. 2006;30:415-9.

Patil GV, Kolagi SI, Ramdurg U. Morphometrical study of scapular glenoid cavities. Global Journal of Medical Research: Orthopedics and Musculoskeletal system. 2014;14(2):9-14.

Iannotti JP, Gabriel JP, Schneck SL, Evans BG, Misra S. The normal glenohumeral relationships. An anatomical study of one hundred and forty shoulders. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1992;74:491-500.

Dhindsa GS, Singh Z. A study of morphology of glenoid cavity. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2014;3:7036-43.

Polguj M, Jedrzejewski KS, Podgorski M, Topol M. Correlation between morphometry of the suprascapular notch and anthropometric measurements of the scapula. Folia Morphol. 2011;70:109-15.