Gender based differences in lipid profile and other novel atherogenic risk factors in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients


  • Arpita Jaidev Department of Biochemistry, Pramukhswami Medical College. Karamsad, Gujarat, India
  • Hitesh Shah Department of Biochemistry, Pramukhswami Medical College. Karamsad, Gujarat, India
  • Mayank K. Chaturvedi Department of Dentistry, GMERS Medical College and Hospital Dharpur, Patan, Gujarat, India



Diabetes, Lipid profile, Dyslipidemia, Atherogenic indices, Novel cardiovascular risk factors


Background: Utilization of lipids and lipoproteins gets altered in diabetes mellitus (DM) leading to atherogenic dyslipidemia. This study evaluates cardiovascular risk profile of diabetic men and women, including conventional lipid profile and novel risk factors namely lipid ratios, atherogenic coefficient and atherogenic index.

Methods: In all 200 diabetic patients (100 males and 100 females) aged 18-65 years who were under treatment were randomly sampled for the study. Socio-demographic data were collected. Glycated hemoglobin levels, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, were estimated using standard procedures. Anthropometric variables such body mass index (BMI) was measured, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were also taken. There was no difference between men and women with respect to duration of DM and type of treatment.

Results: Lipid profile estimates showed that diabetic females had higher level of total cholesterol (TC) (198.07 vs 169.5 mg/dl) and higher level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C (43.99 vs. 41 mg/dl) as compared to males. All the parameters that are raised total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were observed in significantly higher proportion of females as compared to males. The values of atherogenic indices [CR1, CR2, AC and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP)] for both genders were higher than the baseline value. In this study females had higher mean non-HDL 154 mg/dl as compared to males mean non-HDL 129 mg/dl and this study showed that female participants held on in high-risk AIP category and so they were at a higher risk of developing coronary heart condition.

Conclusions: Dyslipidemia was observed in a greater proportion of female diabetic patients than male diabetic patients.


Tao Z, Shi A, Zhao J. Epidemiological perspectives of diabetes. Cell biochemi biophysics. 2015;73(1):181-5.

Kannel WB, McGee DL. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Framingham study. JAMA. 1979;241(19):2035-8.

Jousilahti P, Vartiainen E, Tuomilehto J, Puska P. Sex, age, cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary heart disease: a prospective follow-up study of 14786 middle-aged men and women in Finland. Circulation. 1999;99(9):1165-72.

Windler E. What is the consequence of an abnormal lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome? Atherosclerosis Suppl. 2005;6(3):11-4.

Kanthe PS, Patil BS, Bagali S, Shaikh GB, Aithala M. Atherogenic index as a predictor of cardiovascular risk among women with different grades of obesity. Int J Collaborative Res Int Med Public Health. 2012;4(10):10.

Dobiasˇova M. Atherogenic index of plasma [log (triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol)]: theoretical and practical implications. Clin Chem. 2004;50(7):1113-5.

Nimmanapalli HD, Kasi AD, Devapatla P, Nuttakki V. Lipid ratios, atherogenic coefficient and atherogenic index of plasma as parameters in assessing cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Res Med Sci. 2016;4(7):2863-9.

Bhardwaj S, Bhattacharjee J, Bhatnagar MK, Tyagi S, Delhi N. Atherogenic index of plasma, castelli risk index and atherogenic coefficient-new parameters in assessing cardiovascular risk. Int J Pharm Biol Sci. 2013;3(3):359-64.

National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Third report of the expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). NIH. 2001.

Vergès B. Pathophysiology of diabetic dyslipidaemia: where are we? Diabetologia. 2015;58(5):886-99.

Grover SA, Levinton C, Paquet S. Identifying adults at low risk for significant hyperlipidemia: a validated clinical index. J clin epidemiol. 1999;52(1):49-55.

Tan MH, Johns D, Glazer NB. Pioglitazone reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin chem. 2004;50(7):1184-8.

King H, Aubert RE, Herman WH. Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes care. 1998;21(9):1414-31.

Atlas D. International diabetes federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 7th edn. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation. 2015.

Dixit AK, Dey R, Suresh A, Chaudhuri S, Panda AK, Mitra A et al. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes mellitus of ayurveda Hospital. J Diabetes Metabolic Dis. 2014;13(1):1-6.

Faseeh KM, Pasha SW, Maryam Z, Thunga MV. The Pattern of dyslipidemia among type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients of Mangalore. Indian J Basic App Med Res. 2015:4(2):254-7.

Gordon L, Ragoobirsingh D, Morrison EY, Choo-Kang E, McGrowder D, Martorell E. Lipid profile of type 2 diabetic and hypertensive patients in the Jamaican population. J lab physicians. 2010;2(01):25-30.

Krentz AJ. Lipoprotein abnormalities and their consequences for patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, obesity metabol. 2003;5:S19-27.

Brunzell JD, Davidson M, Furberg CD, Goldberg RB, Howard BV, Stein JH, Witztum JL. Lipoprotein management in patients with cardiometabolic risk: consensus conference report from the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. J Am College Cardiol. 2008;51(15):1512-24.

Rathod GB, Parmar P, Rathod S, Parikh A. Study of dyslipidemic pattern and glycosylated hemoglobin status in diabetic patients. Endocrinol diabetes Res. 2016;19;2015.

Gordon DJ, Probstfield JL, Garrison RJ, Neaton JD, Castelli WP, Knoke JD et al. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease. Four prospective American studies. Circulation. 1989;79(1):8-15.

Sibley SD, Thomas W, De Boer I, Brunzell JD, Steffes MW. Gender and elevated albumin excretion in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) cohort: role of central obesity. Am j kidney dis. 2006;47(2):223-32.

Roeters van Lennep JE, Westerveld HT, Erkelens DW, van der Wall EE. Risk factors for coronary heart disease: implications of gender. Cardiovascular res. 2002;53(3):538-49.

Juutilainen A, Kortelainen S, Lehto S, Rönnemaa T, Pyörälä K, Laakso M. Gender difference in the impact of type 2 diabetes on coronary heart disease risk. Diabetes care. 2004;27(12):2898-904.

Satyavani K, Archana S, Kumar AMV, Achanta S, Viswanathan V. Sex differences in cardiovascular risk factors among people with diabetes in South India. J Assoc Physic India. 2015;63:20-4.

Abed Y, Jamee A. Characteristics and risk factors attributed to coronary artery disease in women attended health services in Gaza-Palestine observational study. World J cardiovascular Dis. 2015;5(01):9.

Peters SA, Huxley RR, Sattar N, Woodward M. Sex differences in the excess risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with type 2 diabetes: potential explanations and clinical implications. Curr cardiovascular risk rep. 2015;9(7):36.

Dobiás̆ová M, Frohlich J. The plasma parameter log (TG/HDL-C) as an atherogenic index: correlation with lipoprotein particle size and esterification rate inapob-lipoprotein-depleted plasma (FERHDL). Clin biochem. 2001;34(7):583-8.

Ademuyiwa O, Ugbaja RN, Rotimi SO. Plasma lipid profile, atherogenic and coronary risk indices in some residents of Abeokuta in south-western Nigeria. Biokemistri. 2008;20(2):10-12.

Adu EM, Ukwamedu HA, Oghagbon ES. Assessment of cardiovascular risk indices in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Trop Med Surg. 2015;3(2):10081.

Dobiášová M, Frohlich J, Šedová M, Cheung MC, Brown BG. Cholesterol esterification and atherogenic index of plasma correlate with lipoprotein size and findings on coronary angiography. J lipid res. 2011;52(3):566-71.

Okpa HO, Enang OE, Effa EE, Essien OE, Mbu PN. Comparative analysis of atherogenic index of plasma and its relationship with cardiovascular risk among patients with diabetes mellitus and concurrent diabetes mellitus with hypertension attending endocrinology clinic in a tertiary hospital south-south Nigeria. atherosclerosis. 2015;13(15):16.

Zhu XW, Deng FY, Lei SF. Meta-analysis of Atherogenic Index of Plasma and other lipid parameters in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Primary care diabetes. 2015;9(1):60-7.

Sami Khaza M. Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) as a parameter in predicting cardiovascular risk in males compared to the conventional dyslipidemic indices (cholesterol ratios). Kerbala j med. 2013;6(1):1506-13.

Genest J, Frohlich J, Fodor G, McPherson R. Recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease: summary of the 2003 update. CMAJ. 2003;169(9):921-4.

Parsanasab H, Moradi Pudeh B, Alizadeh A, Abediankenari S. Evaluation of correlation between HbA1c with the Risk factors of lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Mazandaran University Med Sci. 2013;22(2):153-6.

Patil M, Jayaram S, Meera S, Kantharaj N. Role of novel lipid indices and lipoprotein (a) in Type II diabetes mellitus with coronary artery disease. Indian J Fundam Appl Life Sci. 2015;5(2):41-7.

Sharaye KO. Association of atherogenic indices and abdominal obesity indices among non-obese adults in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. J Physiol Pathophysiol. 2015;6(1):1-5.

Nair D, Carrigan TP, Curtin RJ, Popovic ZB, Kuzmiak S, Schoenhagen P et al. Association of total cholesterol/high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio with proximal coronary atherosclerosis detected by multislice computed tomography. Preventive cardiol. 2009;12(1):19-26.

Peters AL. Clinical relevance of non-HDL cholesterol in patients with diabetes. Clin diabetes. 2008;26(1):3-7.




How to Cite

Jaidev, A., Shah, H., & Chaturvedi, M. K. (2021). Gender based differences in lipid profile and other novel atherogenic risk factors in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 9(10), 3099–3104.



Original Research Articles