Adaptogenic potential of Centella lujica supplement in sleep deprived mice


  • Anthony T. Eduviere Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria
  • Prosper E. Awhin Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria
  • Kesiena E. Edje Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria
  • Lily O. Otomewo Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria
  • Olusegun A. Adeoluwa Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Afe Babalola University Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
  • Jennifer E. Winter Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria



Stress, Centella lujica, Sleep deprivation, Adaptogenic, Oxidative stress


Background: Stress, whether internal or external, has been shown to play a role in the accumulation of oxidative free radicals which leads to cellular modification of normal organ or body function. Centella lujica (C. lujica) is a commonly cultivated herb with therapeutic benefits in various studies. This study aims to evaluate its beneficial effect on the brain and liver of mice exposed to sleep deprivation-induced stress.

Methods: Albino mice were treated with distilled water (control), C. lujica (50 and 100 mg/kg) or astaxanthin (50 mg/kg) for seven days. All groups except control were then subjected to three-days of sleep deprivation using the grid suspended over water model beginning from day 4 of treatment. Behavioural assessments followed by biochemical assays and histological analysis were carried out thereafter.

Results: Sleep deprivation caused an increase in blood glucose and triglycerides levels but reduced high density lipoproteins. Brain pro-oxidant levels were increased with a concomitant decrease in antioxidants, recognition memory was diminished while depressive-like symptoms were enhanced and neuronal viability of hippocampal CA1 as well as prefrontal cortex cells was reduced in sleep-deprived mice. However, supplementation with C. lujica reversed these effects as significantly as astaxanthin.

Conclusions: C. lujica possesses antioxidant property that makes it an effective adaptogen against stress induced responses in mice.



Roy B. Physiology of stress and involvement of reactive oxidative species: mini-review. Quest Int J Med Health Sci. 2018;1(1):19-24.

Olonode ET, Aderibigbe AO, Adeoluwa AO, Eduviere AT, Ben-Azu B. Morin hydrate mitigates rapid eye movement sleep deprivation-induced neurobehavioural impairment and loss of viable neurons in the hippocampus of mice. Behavioural Brain Res. 2019;356:518-25.

Mathangi DC, Shyamala R, Subhashini AS. Effect of REM sleep deprivation on the antioxidant status in the brain of Wistar rats. Ann Neurosci. 2012;19:161.

Ramanathan L, Gulyani S, Nienhuis R, Siegel JM. Sleep deprivation decrease superoxide dismutase activities in rat hippocampus and brainstem. Neuroreport. 2002;13(11):1387-90.

Panossian A. Understanding adaptogenic activity: specificity of the pharmacological action of adaptogens and other phytochemicals. Ann N Y Sci. 2017;1401:49.

Samad N, Saleem A, Yasmin F, Shehzad M.A. Quercetin protects against stress-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviour and improves memory in male mice. Physiol Res. 2018;67:795-808.

Mograss MA, Guillem F, Brazzini-Poisson V, Godbout R. The effects of total sleep deprivation on recognition memory process: A study of event-related potential. Neurobiol Learning Memory. 2009;91:343-52.

Umukoro S, Aluko OM, Eduviere AT, Owoeye O. Evaluation of adaptogenic-like property of methyl jasmonate in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress. Brain Res Bull. 2016;121:105-14.

Sun B, Wu L, Wu Y, Zhang C, Qin L, Hayashi M, Kudo M, Gao M, Liu T. ‘Therapeutic potentials of Centella asiatica and its triterpenes.’ Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:568032.

Veerendra KMH, Gupta YK. Effect of different extracts of Centella asiatica on cognition and markers of oxidative stress in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002;79(2):253-60.

Liu M, Dai Y, Yao X, Li Y, Luo Y, Xia Y, Gong, Z. Anti-rheumatoid arthritic effect of madecassoside on type II collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2008;8(11):1561-6.

Antony B, Santhakumari G, Merina B, Sheeba V, Mukkadan J. Hepatoprotective effect of Centella asiatica (L) in carbon tetrachloride induce liver injury in rats. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2006;68(6):772.

Mutayabarwa CK, Sayi JGM, Dande M. Hypoglycaemic activity of Centella asiatica (L) Urb. East Cent. Afr J Pharm Sci. 2003;6(2):30-5.

Xu CL, Wang QZ, Sun LM, Li XM, Deng JM, Li LF, et al. Asiaticoside: attenuation of neurotoxicity induced by MPTP in a rat model of Parkinsonism via maintaining redox balance and up-regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. Pharmacol. Biochem Behav. 2012;100(3):413-8.

Cesarone MR, Incandela L, De Sanctis MT, Belcaro G, Geroulakos G, Griffin M, et al. Flight microangiopathy in medium- to long-distance flights: prevention of edema and microcirculation alterations with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica. Angiology. 2001;52(2):33-7.

Dewi RT, Maryani F. Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Compounds of Centella asiatica. Procedia Chem. 2015;17:147-52.

Zhimin Q, Xinxin C, Jingbo H, Qinmei L, Qinlei Y, Junfeng Z, Xuming D. Asiatic acid enhances Nrf2 signaling to protect HepG2cells fromoxidative damage through Akt and ERK activation. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;88:252-9.

Shinomiya K, Shigemoto Y, Okuma C, Mio M, Kamei C. Effects of short-acting hypnotics on sleep latency in rats placed om grid suspended over water. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;460:139-44.

Machado RB, Hipolide DC, Benedito-Silva AA, Tufik S. Sleep deprivation induced by the modified multiple platform technique: Quantification of sleep loss and recovery. Brain Res. 2004;1004:45-51.

Olugbemide AS, Ben-Azu B, Bakre AG, Ajayi AM, Femi-Akinlosotu O, Umukoro S. Naringenin improves depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in mice exposed to repeated hypoxic stress through modulation of oxido-inflammatory mediators and NF-kB/BDNF expressions. Brain Res Bull. 2021;169:214-27.

Monte AS, de Souza GC, Mclntyre RS, Joanna KS, dos Santos JV, Rafaela CC, et al. Prevention and reversal of ketamine-induced schizophrenia related behavior by minocycline in mice: possible involvement of antioxidant and nitrergic pathway. J Psychopharmacol. 2013;27:1032-43.

Deepika R, Hemamalini K, Vasireddy U. Adapto¬genic activity of methanolic extract of anogeissuslatifolia wall and tabebuiarosea (Bertol.) DC on different experimental models. Int J Pharm Pharmaceutical Sci. 2013;5(4):457-63.

Eduviere AT, Umukoro S, Adeoluwa OA, Omogbiya IA, Aluko OM. Possible mechanisms involved in attenuation of lipopolysaccharide-induced memory deficits by methyl jasmonate in mice. Neurochem Res. 2016;41:3239-49.

Bucolo G, David H. Quantitative determination of serum triglycerides by use of enzymes. Clin Chem. 1973;19:476-82.

Moron MS, Depierre JW, Mannervik B. Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-trans-ferase activities in rat lung and liver. BiochimicaetBiophysicaActa (BBA) - General Subjects. 1979;582(1):67-78.

Adam-Vizi V, Seregi M. Receptor dependent stimulatory effect of noradrenaline on Na+/K+ ATPase in rat brain homogenate. Role of lipid peroxidation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982;31:2231-6.

Misra HP, Fridovich I. The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. J Biol Chem. 1972;247(10):3170-5.

Sinha AK. Colorimetric assay of catalase. Analytical Biochem. 1972;47:389-94.

Green LC, Wagner DA, Glogowski J, Skipper PL, Wishnok JS, Tannenbaum SR. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [15N] nitrate in biological fluids. Anal Biochem. 1982;126(1):131-8.

Sugihara A, Sugiura K, Morita H, Ninagawa T, Tubouchi K, Tobe R, et al. promotive effects of a silk film on epidermal recovery from full-thickness skin wounds. Soc Exp Biol Med. 2000;225:58-64.

Sanchez-Valle V, Chavez-Tapia N, Uribe M, Mendez-Sanchez N. Role of oxidative stress and molecular changes in liver fibrosis: a review. Curr Med Chem. 2012;19(28).

Shi Y, Vanhoutte PM. Reactive oxygen-derived free radicals are key to the endothelial dysfunction of diabetes. J Diabet. 2009;1(3):151-62.

Taha M, Rady HY, Olama NK. Effect of sleep deprivation on the liver, kidney and eart: histological and immunohistochemical study. Int J Sci Rep. 2018;4(7):172-81.

Umukoro S, Omogbiya AI, Eduviere AT. Evaluation of the effect of jobelyn on chemoconvulsants-induced seizure in mice. Basic Clin Neuros. 2013;4(2):19-23.

Polzella DJ. Effects of sleep deprivation on short-term recognition memory. J Exp Psychol Human Learning Memory. 1975;104(2):194-200.

Annafi OS, Aluko OM, Eduviere AT, Omorogbe O, Umukoro S. Probable mechanisms involved in the antipsychotic-like activity of methyl jasmonate in mice. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol. 2017;390: 883-92.




How to Cite

Eduviere, A. T., Awhin, P. E., Edje, K. E., Otomewo, L. O., Adeoluwa, O. A., & Winter, J. E. (2021). Adaptogenic potential of Centella lujica supplement in sleep deprived mice. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 9(11), 3269–3276.



Original Research Articles