Profile of pathogens isolated from different clinical samples and their antimicrobial pattern: a retrospective study

M. Anjaneya Swamy, Jagannath D. Andhale


Background: Since there is a significant rise in resistant bacteria to different antimicrobial agents, there is a need to study the resistance pattern of different isolates from different clinical samples for effective use of available antimicrobials by clinicians. The aim of the present study was to detect the resistance pattern of various antimicrobials against different clinical isolates in hospitalised patients in out setting.

Methods: This is a retrospective study involving the collection of the data from the records of microbiology laboratory. All clinical specimens were processed as per standard microbiological procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plate as per CLSI guidelines.

Results: A total of 153 isolates were recovered from 219 clinical samples accounting for 69.86% of total positivity. Which includes gram negative bacilli 107/153 (69.93%) gram positive cocci 36/153 (23.53%) and yeast 10/153 (6.54%). Among the total isolates gram negative bacilli account for major number of isolates 69.93% followed by gram positive cocci 23.53% and yeast 6.54%. Gram positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli showed a significant level of antimicrobial resistance. Nitrofurantoin is highly effective against urinary isolates of Escherichia coli. vancomycin and linezolid are most effective antimicrobials against gram positive cocci. Among gram negative bacilli meropenem and amikacin are most effective antimicrobials. Statistical significance of occurrence of Escherichia coli as predominant isolate as compared to other isolates were analysed by chi square test by using GraphPad online calculator. A p value<0.001 was obtained.

Conclusions: Significant rise in antimicrobial resistant pathogens were observed. Local antimicrobial policy should be developed for effective selection of available antimicrobials which are the need of the day to reduce the burden of diseases on global health care system.


Antimicrobial resistance, Gram negative bacilli, Gram positive cocci

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