Anxiety among people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral treatment attending tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
Keywords:Antiretroviral therapy, PLHA, anxiety
Background: One of the major health challenges faced by India is the rapid growth of HIV/AIDS and its impact upon human life. Co-morbidities like anxiety are often overlooked while providing ART services to HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore the present study was conducted to assess the anxiety and associated factors among PLHA (People Living with HIV/AIDS) on antiretroviral treatment attending tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow.
Methods: Hospital‑based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 among 170 patients on treatment attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) centre of two tertiary care hospitals of Lucknow. Systematic random sampling was used to recruit patients. The anxiety level of all included patients was scored as per Hamilton anxiety rating scale.
Results: The mean HAM-A score of 179 patients was 10.74±6.04. Majority (92.1%) of the patients had HAM-A score less than 17 indicating mild severity, 5.0% of the patient had mild to moderate severity while only 2.7% had moderate to severe level of anxiety symptoms. None of the patient had very severe level of anxiety. Significant association was found between level of anxiety symptoms with educational status (0.03), perception of side-effects during last one month (0.03) and duration of treatment (0.04).
Conclusions: People living with HIV/AIDS need to be periodically educated and informed about various issues associated with the disease severity and antiretroviral treatment along with its side-effects so that they could better cope with disease and its treatment outcomes over time and be able to seek early treatment accordingly.
HIV Prevalence. National Family Health Survey (NFHS3), 2005-06:1. Mumbai, IIPS: International institute for population sciences and macro international. Available at: http://www.nfhsindia.org/nfhs3.html. Accessed on 2008 Dec 29.
Basu S, Chwastiak LA, Douglas R. Clinical management of depression and anxiety in hiv infected adults. BruceAIDS. 2005;19(18):20572067.
Sreelekshmi R. Anxiety and coping mechanisms among HIV positive patients Manipal Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences. 2015;5(2):91.
Imasiku ML. A comparative study of anxiety among HIV seropositive individuals, cancer patients and individuals from the normative population. Medical Journal of Zambia.35(2).
Gupta AS, Ila. Impact of counselling upon anxiety and depression of AIDS patients. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology. 2010;36(2):249-53.
Belete A, Andaregie G, Tareke M, Birhan T, Azale T. Prevalence of anxiety and associated factors among people living HIV/AIDS at debretabor general hospital anti retro viral clinic Debretabor, Amhara, Ethiopia, 2014. American Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. 2014;2(6):109-14.
Reus, VI. Mental disorders In Harrison’s Principle of internal medicine, Fauci et al eds. 14th Ed. McGraw-Hill.1998.
Ahuja AS, Parkar SR, Yeolekar ME. Psychosocial aspects of seropositive HIV patients. J Assoc Physicians India. 1998;46:277-80.
Chandra PS, Krishna VA, Ravi V, Desai A, Puttaram S. HIV related admissions in a psychiatric hospital: a five year profile. Indian J Psychiatry. 1999;41:320-4.
Chandra PS, Carey MP, Carey KB, Shalinianant A, Thomas T. Sexual coercion and abuse among women with a severe mental illness in India: An exploratory investigation. Compr Psychiatry. 2003;44:205-12.
Ramasubramanian C, Balaji Kumar VV, Kumar GS, Chinnian RR, Kannan M, et al. 59 Annual National Conference of Indian Psychiatric Society. Chennai: Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 2007. Prevalance of posttraumatic stress disorder among persons living with HIV/Aids (PLWHA).
Wagner JG, Holloway I, Dastidar GB. Understanding the influence of depression on self-efficiency, work status and condom use among HIV clients in Uganda. Journal of psychosomatic Research. 2011;70:440-8.
Jacob KS, Eapen V, John JK. Psychiatric morbidity in HIV infected individuals. Indian J Med Res. 1991;93:62-6.
Perkins DO, Stein RA, Golden RN, Murphy C, Naftolowitz D, Evans DL. Mood disorders in HIV infection. Prevalence and risk factors in a non epicenter of the AIDS epidemic. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;15:233-6.
Khan MA, Sehgal A. Clinico-epidemiological and Socio-behavioral Study of People Living with HIV/AIDS. Indian J Psychol Med. 2010;32:22-8.
Polo Gascón MR, Capitão CG, Casseb J, Fantini MC, Martins N, Smid J, Penalva de Oliveira AC. Prevalence of anxiety, depression and quality of life in HTLV-1 infected patients. Braz J Infect Dis. 2011;15(6):578-82
Shukla M, Monika Agarwal M, Singh J, Tripathi A, Srivastava A, Singh VK. Catastrophic health ex-penditure amongst people living with HIV/AIDS availing antiretro-viral treatment services at two tertiary care health facilities in district of Northern India. Ntl J of Community Med. 2015;6(3):323-8.