Impact of COVID-19 pandemic (wave 2) and associated lockdown on wound care and the resultant increase in the number of amputations
Keywords:COVID, Amputation, Cellulites, Diabetic foot
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unparalleled impact on the socio-economic and healthcare structure of the entire world, including India. The risk of major amputations has increased during the COVID-19 lockdown.
Aim of the study was to conduct a single-centered study on the prevalence of major amputations during the pre-pandemic and pandemic period to evaluate the indirect effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on people with lower limb cellulites and wounds. This study also emphasizes on the importance of easy and routine access to foot-care specialist.
Methods: The data of patients attending the outpatient and emergency room of general surgery in K. R. Hospital with complaints of cellulites/wounds/ulcers during the months of March to July was evaluated. The number of amputations done during same time period was analyzed.
Results: The patients attending outpatient department (OPD) during the lockdown had a fall, while cases and amputations immediately after lockdown had increased.
Conclusions: The findings of the present study, reiterate the role of preventive actions in wound care and stress on the importance awareness of complications if such wounds are ignored.
Union Ministry of Family and Health Welfare (MoFHW) India.
Available at: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/ coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200607-covid-19-sitrep-139.pdf? sfvrsn = 79dc6d08_2. Accessed on 08 June 2020.
Gupta N, Agrawal S, Ish P, Gaind R, Arora B, Sen M, et al. Clinical and epidemiologic profile of the initial COVID 19 patients at a tertiary care centre in India. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2020;90:193-6.
Ranasinghe P, Jayawardena R, Gamage N, Sivanandam N, Misra A. Prevalence and trends of the diabetes epidemic in urban and rural India: A pooled systematic review and meta-analysis of 1.7 million adults. Ann Epidemiol. 2021;58:128-48.
Guan W, Liang W, Zhao Y, Liang H, Chen Z, Li Y, et al. Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis. Eur Respir J. 2020;55(5).
Kumar GK, Souza CD, Diaz EA. Incidence and causes of lower-limb amputations in a tertiary care center: Evaluation of the medical records in a period of 2 years. Int J Surg Sci. 2018;2(3):16-9.
Guo H, Zhou Y, Liu X, Tan J. The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the utilization of emergency dental services. J Dent Sci. 2020;15:564-7.
Yu J, Zhang T, Zhao D, Haapasalo M, Shen Y. Characteristics of Endodontic Emergencies during Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak in Wuhan. J Endod. 2020;46(6):730-5.
American Dental Association. ADA Develops Guidance on Dental Emergency, Nonemergency Care. 2020. Available at: https://www.ada. org/en/publications/ada-news/2020-archive/march/ada-develops-guidance-on-dental-emergencynonemergency- care. Accessed on 28 December 2020.
Falahchai M, Babaee HY, Hasanzade M. Dental care management during the COVID-19 outbreak. Spec Care Dent. 2020;40:539-48.
Gurzawska-Comis K, Becker K, Brunello G, Gurzawska A, Schwarz F. Recommendations for Dental Care during COVID-19 Pandemic. J Clin Med. 2020;9:1833.
Aquilanti L, Gallegati S, Temperini V, Ferrante L, Skrami E, Procaccini M, Rappelli G. Italian Response to Coronavirus Pandemic in Dental Care Access: The DeCADE Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17:6977.
Izzetti R, Gennai S, Nisi M, Barone A, Giuca MR, Gabriele M, Graziani F. A perspective on dental activity during COVID-19: The Italian survey. Oral Dis. 2020;1-9.
Coulthard P, Thomson P, Dave M, Coulthard FP, Seoudi N, Hill M. The COVID-19 pandemic and dentistry: The clinical, legal and economic consequences—part 1: Clinical. Br Dent J. 2020;229:743-7.