Published: 2017-01-03

Missile injuries to the external genitalia: a five year experience in Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria

Hassan Mohammed Dogo, Ahmed Gaddams Ibrahim, Yakubu Lawan Gana


Background: There is a tremendous increase in violence as a result of the insurgency that is currently afflicting our region. Injuries from Gunshot and improvised explosive devices (IEDS) are quite common and the external genitalia is longer exempted from such injuries.

Methods: The study reviewed all patients with missile injuries to the external genitalia managed in the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (U.M.T.H) between January 2011 and December 2015. 

Results: A total of 51 patients had injuries to the external genitalia. Seven were excluded for incomplete data and 44 patients were analyzed. Age ranged from 5-70 years with a mean of 32.75 years and a male to female ratio of 10:1.  The peak age group was 30-39 years accounting for 31.82%. The injuries were scrotal 65.91%, and penis 20.45%. Procedures done were wound debridement in all patients, and delayed primary closure in 43.18%. The outcome was satisfactory in terms of cosmesis, erectile and voiding functions.

Conclusions: Genital missile injuries are on the increase with militarization of civilian population. Goals of treatment still remain cosmesis, preservation of erectile and voiding function.


Missile injury, External genitalia, Experience, Developing country

Full Text:



Phonsonbat S, Master VA, McAninch JW. Penetrating external genitalia trauma: a 30 year single institution experience. J Urol. 2008;180:192-6.

Ahmed A, Mbibu NH. Aetiology and management of male external genitalia in Nigeria. Injury. 2008:39:128-33.

Waxman S, Beekley A, Morey A, Soderdahl D. Penetrating trauma to the external genitalia in Operation Iraqi Freedom; Int J Impot Res. 2009;21:145-8.

Kunkle DA, Lebed BD, Mydlo JH, Pontari MA. Evaluation and management of gunshot wounds of the penis: 20 year experience at an urban trauma center. J Trauma. 2008;64:1038-42.

Morey AF, Metro MJ, Carney KJ, Miller KS, McAninch JW. Consensus on genitourinary trauma: external genitalia BJU Int. 2004;94:507-15.

Bandi G, Santucci RA, controversies in the management of male external genitourinary trauma. J Trauma. 2004;56:1362-70.

Ofoha CG, Shuaibu SI, Akpayak IC, Dakum NK, Ramyil VM. Male external genital injuries; pattern of presentation and management at Jos University Teaching Hospital, IOSR-JDMS. 2014;13(10):67-72.

Ghilan AM, Ghafour MA, Al Asbahi WA, AlKambashi OM, Alwan MA, Al Ba’dani TH. Gunshot wounds injuries to the male external genitalia: Saudi Med J. 2010;31(9):1005-10.

Gomez RG, Castanheira AC, McAnich JW. Gunshot wounds to the male external genitalia; J Urol. 1993;150(4):1147-9.

Fus A, Okumura T, Tokuno S, Saitoh D, Yokota H. Current Status of Preparedness for Blast injuries in Japan. JMAJ. 2011;54(5):310-7.

Beckett A, Pelletier P, Mamczak C, Benfield R, Elster E. Multidisciplinary Trauma Team Care in Kandahar Afghanistan: Current Injury Patterns and care practices. Injury. 2012;43(12):2072-7

Sinnott ID, Morris G, Medland PJ, Porter K. High velocity facial gunshot wounds: multidisciplinary care from pre hospital to discharge: BMJ CR. 2016 doi:10. 1136/ber-2015-213268.