Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Boswellia serrata on carrageenan induced paw edema in albino Wistar rats

Shaik Mannur Ismail, K. R. S. Sambasiva Rao, Matcha Bhaskar


Background: Inflammation is a response of the immune system, guarding the individual against infection. It is a major burning problem worldwide and billions of individuals are affected. Moreover administration of current anti-inflammatory drugs is often associated with severe side effects. Hence alternative therapeutic modules are necessitated. Now a day’s herbal medicines are using due to their high efficacy and harmless to cure the diseases. In traditional medicine Boswellia serrata (B. serrata) has been widely used to treat various diseases which also include Inflammation. Till now the effect of B serrata on inflammation was not well understood. Hence In the present study we made an attempt to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of B. Serrata against carrageenan induced paw edema which is acute model of inflammation.

Methods: Albino wistar rats were divided into five groups, group 1 treated with carrageenan (control) whereas group 2, 3, and 4 treated with different doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/bw) of B. serrata along with carrageenan, respectively. Group 5 treated with standard drug (Indomethacin 10 mg/kg/bw). Carrageenan induced paw edema and histopathological study of paw were evaluated in all experimental rats.

Results: The present study clearly demonstarted that carrageenan significantly increased paw edema and cellular infiltrates whereas B. serrata treated rats significantly decreased the paw edema and histopathological finding of cellular infiltrates and found to be greater at higher concentration i.e., 200 mg/kg/b/wt as compared to standard drug.

Conclusions: The findings from the above study proves that B. serrata has high anti-inflammatory activity and supports its usage in traditional medicine as herbal anti-inflammatory medicine.



B. serrata, Anti-inflammation, Carrageenan, Paw histology

Full Text:



Siddiqui MZ. Boswellia Serrata, A potential anti-inflammatory agent: an overview. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011;73(3): 255-61.

Aggarwal BB, Prasad S, Reuter S, Kannappan R, Yadev VR, Park B, Kim JH, Gupta SC, Phromnoi K, Sundaram C, Prasad S, Chaturvedi MM, Sung B. Identification of novel anti-inflammatory agents from ayurvedic medicine for prevention of chronic diseases. Curr Drug Targets. 2011;12(11):1595-653.

Sharma S, Thawani V, Hingorani L. Pharmacokinetic study of 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid. Phytomedicine. 2004;11:255-60.

Dhiman AK. Ayurvedic drug plants. Delhi: Daya Publishing House. 2006;326-7.

Mathe C, Culioli G, Archier P. Characterization of archeological frankincense by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr. 2004;1023:277-85.

Nathan C. Points of control in inflammation. Nature. 2002;420:846-52.

Frank MM, Fries LF. The role of complement in inflammation and phagocytosis. Immunology. Today. 1991;12:322-6.

El-Gamal MI, Bayomi SM, El-Ashry SM, Said SA, Abdel-Aziz AA, Abdel-Aziz NI. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of novel (substituted) benzylidene acetone oxime ether derivatives: molecular modeling study. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:1403-14.

Rao PS, Prasad MNV. The Strychnosnux-vomica root extract induces apoptosis in the human multiple myeloma cell line-U266B1. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics. 2013;66:443-50

Rao PS, Ramanadham M, Prasad MNV. Anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects of Strychnosnux-vomica root extract on human multiple myeloma cell line - RPMI 8226. Food and chemical toxicology. 2009;47:283-8.

Rao PS, Prasad MNV. Extraction, purification and characterization of indole alkaloids from Strychnos wallichiana L. An endangered medicinal plant from India Med Arom Plant Sci. Biotechnol. 2008;2:63-7.

Rao PS, Muvva C, Geethanjali K, Babu BS, Kalashikam R. Molecular docking and virtual screening for novel protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors. Bioinformation. 2012;8(17):834-7.

Avinash A, Swarupa SS, Siva K, Sirisha D, Riyaz S, kumar ND, Sreenivasulu M, Rao PS. Design and evaluation of famotidine floating tablets. IJIPSR. 2015;6(1):440-5.

Terzić J, Grivennikov S, Karin E, Karin M. Inflammation and Colon Cancer. Gastroenterology. 2010;138(6):2101-14.

Govatati S, Saradamma B, Krishna Thupuran SM, Narayana N, Bhanoori M, Nallanchakravarthula V, Sreenivasa Rao P. Mitochondrial DNA Part A DNA Mapping, sequencing, and association of mitochondrial displacement loop polymorphisms with risk of colorectal cancer in south indian population. Mitochondrial DNA. 2016. Available at:

Govatati S, Malempati S, Saradamma B, Divyamaanasa D, Naidu BP, Bramhachar PV, et al. Manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) over expression is a common event in colorectal cancers with mitochondrial microsatellite instability. Tumor Biol. 2016. DOI 10.1007/s13277-016-4918-0 .

Govatati S, Singamsetty GK, Nallabelli N, Malempati S, Rao PS, Kumar Madamchetty VK, et al. Contribution of cyclin D1 (CCND1) and E-cadherin (CDH1) alterations to colorectal cancer susceptibility: a case–control study. Tumor Biology, 2014. DOI 10.1007/s13277-014-2505-9.

Reddy VB, Subramayam VV, Veersalingam B, Satish S, Bangla G, Rao PS. Role of alvarado score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. IJRMS. 2013;1(4):404-8.

Sreeram S, Subraj H, Mahesh G, Rao PS. Comparative analysis between single incision and conventional laparoscopic appendicectomy for acute appendicitis. IJRMS. 2014;2(4):1626-31.

Chetan R, Veeresalingam B, Kumar MK, Durbesula PT, Rao PS. A study on the clinical manifestations and the incidence of benign and malignant tumors in a solitary thyroid nodule. IJRMS. 2013;1(4):429-34.

Singh R, Kumar R, Singh DP. Nitric oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs: gastrointestinal-sparing potential drugs. J Med Food. 2009;12(1):208-18.

Satyanand V, Reddy CB, RamaMohan P, Kumar MR, Narayanaswamy DL, Seelam A, Ramalingam K, Rao PS. Effects of Garlic extract (Allium sativum) in combination with Amlodipine in mild to moderate essential hypertensive patients: An Open randomized parallel group study. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development. 2013;2(4):181-8.

Satyanand V, Venkata Krishnan, Ramalingam K, Rao PS, Priyadarshini S. Blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels lowers the high blood pressure through ginger. International Journal of Analytical, Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences. 2013;2(1):64-6.

Satyanand V, Venkat Krishnan, Madhavi D, Revathi, Indira S, Shaik AB, Rao PS. The effect of peppermint juice for indigestion among old age people- A preliminary study. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development. 2013;2(7): 238-43.

Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GV. Carrageenan-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for anti inflammatory drugs. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1962;111:544-7.

Lanhers M-C, Fleurentin J, Mortier F, Vinche A, Younos C. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of an aqueous extract of Harpagophytum procumbens. Planta Med. 1992;58:117-23.

Culling, CFA. Handbook of HistochemicalHistopathological Techniques.3rd ed. Butterworth, London. 1974;29-61.

Gurib-Fakim A, Medicinal plants: Traditions of yesterday, and drugs of tomorrow. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 2006;27:1-93.

Sharma US, Sharma UK, Sutar N, Singh A, Shukla DK. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cordiadichotomaforst f. seeds extracts. International Journal of Pharmaceuticals Analysis. 2010;2(1):01-04.

Di Rosa M, Giroud JP, Willoughby DA. Studies on the mediators of the acute inflammatory response induced in rats in different sites by carrageenan and turpentine. J. Pathol. 1971;104:15-29.

Santos JA, Arruda A, Silva MA, Cardoso CA, Vieira Mdo C,Kassuya CA, Arena AC. Anti-inflammatory effects and acute toxicity of hydroethanolic extract of Jacaranda decurrensroots in adult male rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;144:802-5.

Sadeghi H, HajhashemiV,Minaiyan M,Movahedian A,Talebi A.Further studies on anti-inflammatory activity of maprotiline in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2013;15:505-10.

Liao J, Tsai C, Peng W, Chiu YJ, Sung PJ, Tsuzoki M, Ku YH. Anti-inflammatory activity of N-(3-florophenyl) ethylcaffeamide in mice. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:15199-211.

Li WF, Huan HM, Zhang YM, Fan T, Liu X, Xing W, Ni XF. Anti-inflammatory effect of tetrahydrocoptisine from Corydalis impatiens is a function of possible inhibition of TNF-α, IL-6 and NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peritoneal macrophages through inhibiting NF-κB activation and MAPK pathway. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;715:62-71.

Andonegui G, Bonder CS, Green F, Mullaly SC, Zbytnuik L, Raharjo E, Kubes P. Endothelium-derived Toll-like receptor-4 is the key molecule in LPS-induced neutrophil sequestration into lungs. J Clin Investig. 2003;111:1011-20.

Davis RJ. MAPKs: New JNK expands the group. Trends Biochem Sci. 1994;19:470-3.

Bhat NR, Zhang P, Lee JC, Hogan EL. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 subgroups of mitogen-activated protein kinases regulate inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression in endotoxin-stimulated primary glial cultures. J Neuro Sci. 1998;18:1633-41.

Xie C, Kang J, Li Z, Schauss AG, Badger TM, Nagarajan S, Wu T, Wu X. The acai flavonoid velutin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent: Blockade of LPS-mediated TNF-α and IL-6 production through inhibiting NF-κB activation and MAPK pathway. J Nutr Bioche. 2012;23:1184-91.

Safayhi H, Mack T, Sabira J, Anazod MI, Subramanian LR, Ammon HPT. Boswellic acids: novel, specific nonredox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992;261(3):1143-6.

Vidya V, Rajeev A, Priyanka S, Raheela AV. Formulation of anti-inflammatory gel containing boswellic acid from Boswelliaserrata Gum. IJPT. 2014;7(11):1305-10.