Published: 2022-01-29

A study of fetal anomalies: contribution of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

Vineet Vij, Rahul Dev Chauhan, Amit Choubey


Background: Ultrasonography (USG) remains the primary modality for fetal imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable adjunct to USG. MRI is currently not used as a primary screening tool for antenatal period; however, it provides a reproducible fetal anatomy and can be more informative when the diagnosis on antenatal USG is inconclusive. Aim of the study was to study the contribution of antenatal USG and MRI in diagnosing fetal anomalies at a zonal hospital.

Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study enrolling the pregnant women between 13 to 35 weeks of gestation. The 30 consecutive fetuses suspected to have fetal anomaly on USG, were subjected to MRI after obtaining informed consent. Final diagnosis was made either radiologically (including follow up) or by clinical examination or autopsy.

Results: In 30 cases, 31 anomalies were detected on USG. There were 14 anomalies pertaining to central nervous system (CNS), 05 anomalies of genitourinary tract (GUT), 04 anomalies of thorax, 03 anomalies of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and, 05 anomalies involving other body parts of fetus. MRI could detect 28 anomalies. USG was able to characterize a case of dorsal meningo-myelocoele better than MRI. MRI was able to show the extent of other anomalies better than USG and provided additional information of horseshoe shape in 01 case of multi cystic dysplastic kidneys. MRI could not detect 03 cases of single umbilical artery.

Conclusions: USG is the primary modality for fetal imaging. MRI can be a used as an adjunct to USG for confirmation and better delineation of anomalies.



Fetal anomalies, Ultrasound, MRI

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