DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20220538

Dental fear: a narrative review

Nowrin J. Nishi, Shahana Pervin, Syed Shaude

Abstract


The dental fear and anxiety (DFA) is a common phenomenon around the world. From children to the adults, most of the people become frightened when they face any dental discomfort and they need to visit a dentist and go through a treatment procedure in a dental set up. This narrative review tends to identify the causes behind DFA, its consequences and management of DFA from different studies which were conducted previously. This study is a narrative review of DFA. This study is mainly based on the secondary data from different articles and journals which were available online. After the proper screening from 154 titles, the final review included 68 articles. Based on different studies, it is found that DFA in quiet common in the people of all ages. The studies had found that dental fear and anxiety most often results from a traumatic past dental experience. Friendly dental office environment is an effective way in reducing dental fear and anxiety. Psychotherapeutic management is also important is managing DFA like behavior-management techniques, relaxation techniques, distraction, guided imagery, hypnotherapy, acupuncture, systematic desensitization or exposure therapy, positive reinforcement, cognitive restructuring and pharmacological management. The techniques for managing DFA can be the effective solution for reducing stress and make the treatment process more comfortable.

 


Keywords


Dental fear, Dental anxiety, Etiology, Consequences, Managing DFA

Full Text:

PDF

References


Seligman LD, Hovey JD, Chacon K, Ollendick TH. Dental anxiety: An understudied problem in youth. Clin Psychol Rev. 2017;55:25-40.

Moore R. The phenomenon of dental fear: Studies in clinical diagnosis, measurement and treatment (Doctoral dissertation, Department of Child Dental Health and Community Dentistry, Dental Phobia Research and Treatment Center, Royal Dental College). 1991.

Lautch H. Dental phobia. Br J Psychiatry. 1971;119(549):151-8.

Freeman R. Barriers to accessing dental care: patient factor. Br Dent J. 1999;187(3):141-4.

Newton JT, Buck DJ. Anxiety and pain measures in dentistry: a guide to their quality and application. J Am Dent Assoc. 2000;131(10):1449-57.

Buchanan H. Acquisition and measurement of dental anxiety: a summary paper. Soc Sci Dent. 2012;2:10-6.

Armfield JM. How do we measure dental fear and what are we measuring anyway? Oral health & preventive dentistry. 2010;8(2).

Luyk NH, Beck FM, Weaver JM. A visual analogue scale in the assessment of dental anxiety. Anesthesia progress. 1988;35(3):121.

Appukuttan DP. Strategies to manage patients with dental anxiety and dental phobia: literature review. Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dentistry. 2016;8:35.

Locker D, Thomson WM, Poulton R. Psychological disorder, conditioning experiences, and the onset of dental anxiety in early adulthood. J Dent Res. 2001;80(6):1588-92.

Locker D, Liddell A, Dempster L, Shapiro D. Age of onset of dental anxiety. J Dent Res. 1999;78(3):790-6.

Ten Berge M, Veerkamp JS, Hoogstraten J. The etiology of childhood dental fear: the role of dental and conditioning experiences. J Anxiety Disord. 2002;16(3):321-9.

Humphris G, King K. The prevalence of dental anxiety across previous distressing experiences. J Anxiety Disord. 2011;25(2):232-6.

Leeners B, Stiller R, Block E, Görres G, Imthurn B, Rath W. Consequences of childhood sexual abuse experiences on dental care. J Psychosomatic Res. 2007;62(5):581-8.

Uziel N, Bronner G, Elran E, Eli I. Sexual correlates of gagging and dental anxiety. Comm Dent Health. 2012;29(3):243.

Rao A. Principles and practice of pedodontics. Jaypee Digital. 2008.

Themessl‐Huber MA, Freeman R, Humphris G, Macgillivray S, Terzi N. Empirical evidence of the relationship between parental and child dental fear: a structured review and meta‐analysis. Int J Paediatric Dentistry. 2010;20(2):83-101.

Lara A, Crego A, Romero‐Maroto MA. Emotional contagion of dental fear to children: the fathers’ mediating role in parental transfer of fear. Int J Paediatric Dentistry. 2012;22(5):324-30.

Costa Jr PT, McCrae RR. Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five-factor (NEO-FFI) inventory professional manual. Odessa, Fl: PAR. 1992.

Halonen H, Salo T, Hakko H, Räsänen P. Association of dental anxiety to personality traits in a general population sample of Finnish University students. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. 2012;70(2):96-100.

Matthews G, Deary IJ, Whiteman MC. Personality traits. Cambridge University Press. 2003.

Shapiro M, Melmed RN, Sgan‐Cohen HD, Eli I, Parush S. Behavioural and physiological effect of dental environment sensory adaptation on children’s dental anxiety. Eur J Oral Sci. 2007;115(6):479-83.

Hmud R, Walsh LJ. Dental anxiety: causes, complications and management approaches. Int Dentistry SA. 2007;9(5):6-14.

Bare LC, Dundes L. Strategies for combating dental anxiety. J Dent Educ. 2004;68(11):1172-7.

McCaffrey R, Thomas DJ, Kinzelman AO. The effects of lavender and rosemary essential oils on test-taking anxiety among graduate nursing students. Holistic Bursing Practice. 2009;23(2):88-93.

Chen YJ, Shih Y, Chang TM, Wang MF, Lan SS, Cheng FC. Inhalation of neroli essential oil and its anxiolytic effects in animals. InProceedings of measuring behavior. 2008;256-7.

Kritsidima M, Newton T, Asimakopoulou K. The effects of lavender scent on dental patient anxiety levels: a cluster randomised‐controlled trial. Comm Dentistry Oral Epidemiol. 2010;38(1):83-7.

Toda M, Morimoto K. Effect of lavender aroma on salivary endocrinological stress markers. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53(10):964-8.

Lehrner J, Eckersberger C, Walla P, Pötsch G, Deecke L. Ambient odor of orange in a dental office reduces anxiety and improves mood in female patients. Physiol Behavior. 2000;71(1-2):83-6.

Lehrner J, Marwinski G, Lehr S, Johren P, Deecke L. Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office. Physiol Behavior. 2005;86(1-2):92-5.

Shapiro M, Melmed RN, Sgan-Cohen HD, Parush S. Effect of sensory adaptation on anxiety of children with developmental disabilities: A new approach. Pediatric Dentistry. 2009;31(3):222-8.

Cermak SA, Stein Duker LI, Williams ME, Lane CJ, Dawson ME, Borreson AE, Polido JC. Feasibility of a sensory-adapted dental environment for children with autism. Am J Occup Therap. 2015;69(3):6903220020.

Friedman N. Iatrosedation: the treatment of fear in the dental patient. J Dent Educ. 1983;47(2):91-5.

Friedman N, Wood GJ. An evaluation of the iatrosedative process for treating dental fear. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry (Jamesburg, NJ: 1995). 1998;19(4):434-6.

Marci CD, Ham J, Moran E, Orr SP. Physiologic correlates of perceived therapist empathy and social-emotional process during psychotherapy. J Nervous Ment Dis. 2007;195(2):103-11.

Botto RW, Donate-Bartfield E, Nihill P. Chairside techniques for reducing dental fear. Behavioral Dentistry. Oxford: Blackwell. 2006;115-25.

Armfield JM, Heaton LJ. Management of fear and anxiety in the dental clinic: a review. Aust Dent J. 2013;58(4):390-407.

Corah NL. Dental anxiety. Assessment, reduction and increasing patient satisfaction. Dent Clin North Am. 1988;32(4):779-90.

McTigue DJ. Behavior management for the pediatric dental patient. Pediatric Dentistry. 2004;26(2):110.

Bandura A, Walters RH. Social learning theory. Prentice Hall: Englewood cliffs. 1977.

Farhat-McHayleh N, Harfouche A, Souaid P. Techniques for managing behaviour in pediatric dentistry: comparative study of live modelling and tell-show-do based on children's heart rates during treatment. J Canad Dent Assoc. 2009;75(4).

Armfield JM, Heaton LJ. Management of fear and anxiety in the dental clinic: a review. Aust Dental J. 2013;58(4):390-407.

Jacobson E. Progressive relaxation. 2nd edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1938.

Bernstein DA, Borkovec TD. Progressive relaxation training: A manual for the helping professions. Psychology. 1973.

Conrad A, Roth WT. Muscle relaxation therapy for anxiety disorders: it works but how? J Anxiety Disord. 2007;21(3):243-64.

Berggren U, Hakeberg M, Carlsson SG. Relaxation vs. cognitively oriented therapies for dental fear. J Dent Res. 2000;79(9):1645-51.

Weinstein P, Milgrom P, Heaton LJ. Treating Fearful Dental Patients: A Patient Management Handbook. Dental Behavioral Resources. 2009.

Perciavalle V, Blandini M, Fecarotta P, Buscemi A, Di Corrado D, Bertolo L, Fichera F, Coco M. The role of deep breathing on stress. Neurological Sciences. 2017;38(3):451-8.

Biggs QM, Kelly KS, Toney JD. The effects of deep diaphragmatic breathing and focused attention on dental anxiety in a private practice setting. J Dent Hygiene. 2003;77(2):105-13.

Bourne EJ. The anxiety and phobia workbook. 2nd edition. Oakland: New Harbinger. 1995.

Schaffer SD, Yucha CB. Relaxation & Pain Management: The relaxation response can play a role in managing chronic and acute pain. Am J Nursing. 2004;104(8):75-82.

Ackley DC. Dental fear. Aren't you tired of it? Dentistry Today. 2003;22(1):96-102.

White JM. State of the science of music interventions: critical care and perioperative practice. Crit Care Nursing Clin N Am. 2000;12(2):219-25.

Moola S, Pearson A, Hagger C. Effectiveness of music interventions on dental anxiety in paediatric and adult patients: a systematic review. JBI Evidence Synthesis. 2011;9(18):588-630.

Hoffman HG, Garcia-Palacios A, Patterson DR, Jensen M, Furness III T, Ammons Jr WF. The effectiveness of virtual reality for dental pain control: a case study. Psychol Behavior. 2001;4(4):527-35.

Furman E, Jasinevicius TR, Bissada NF, Victoroff KZ, Skillicorn R, Buchner M. Virtual reality distraction for pain control during periodontal scaling and root planing procedures. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009;140(12):1508-16.

Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What's In a Name? US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. D347. 2015. Available at: https://www.nccih.nih. gov/health/complementary-alternative-or-integrative-health-whats-in-a-name. Accessed on 31 January 2022.

Hirschman R. Physiological feedback and stress reduction. Poster presented at: Annual Meeting of Society of Behavioral Medicine. 1980.

British Psychological Society. The nature of hypnosis. A report prepared by a Working Party at the request of The Professional Affairs Board of The British Psychological Society. Leicester: The British Psychological Society. 2001.

Flammer E, Bongartz W. On the efficacy of hypnosis: A meta‐analytic study. Contemporary Hypnosis. 2003;20(4):179-97.

Glaesmer H, Geupel H, Haak R. A controlled trial on the effect of hypnosis on dental anxiety in tooth removal patients. Patient Education and Counseling. 2015;98(9):1112-5.

Ernst E, Pittler MH. The effectiveness of acupuncture in treating acute dental pain: a systematic review. Br Dent J. 1998;184(9):443-7.

Rosted P. The use of acupuncture in dentistry: a review of the scientific validity of published papers. Oral diseases. 1998;4(2):100-4.

Karst M, Winterhalter M, Münte S, Francki B, Hondronikos A, Eckardt A, Hoy L, Buhck H, Bernateck M, Fink M. Auricular acupuncture for dental anxiety: a randomized controlled trial. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2007;104(2):295-300.

Au DW, Tsang HW, Ling PP, Leung CH, Ip PK, Cheung WM. Effects of acupressure on anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acupuncture in Medicine. 2015;33(5):353-9.

Hakeberg M, Berggren U, Carlsson SG. A 10‐year follow‐up of patients treated for dental fear. Eur J Oral Sci. 1990;98(1):53-9.

Roberts JF, Curzon ME, Koch G, Martens LC. Behaviour management techniques in paediatric dentistry. Eur Arch Paediatric Dentistry. 2010;11(4):166-74.

Berggren U, Hakeberg M, Carlsson SG. Relaxation vs. cognitively oriented therapies for dental fear. J Dent Res. 2000;79(9):1645-51.

De Jongh AD, Muris P, Ter Horst G, Van Zuuren F, Schoenmakers N, Makkes P. One-session cognitive treatment of dental phobia: preparing dental phobics for treatment by restructuring negative cognitions. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 1995;33(8):947-54.

Folayan MO, Faponle A, Lamikanra A. A review of the pharmacological approach to the management of dental anxiety in children. Int J Paediatric Dentistry. 2002;12(5):347-54.

Newton T, Asimakopoulou K, Daly B, Scambler S, Scott S. The management of dental anxiety: time for a sense of proportion? Br Dent J. 2012;213(6):271-4.

Forbes MD, Boyle CA, Newton T. Acceptability of behaviour therapy for dental phobia. Comm Dentistry Oral Epidemiol. 2012;40(1):1-7.

Newton JT, Naidu R, Sturmey P. The acceptability of the use of sedation in the management of dental anxiety in children: views of dental students. Eur J Dent Educ. 2003;7(2):72-6.