Assessment of dynamic balance and bone density in premenopausal and postmenopausal middle-age women: a comparative study
Keywords:Dynamic balance, Bone density, F8WT, Gait speed, Narrow walk, Obstacle walk, Physical performance test, Post-menopausal
Background: Dynamic balance control is required to perform simple and complex mobility task in our day-to-day life. Deficit in balance can results in falls and fractures which can affect health-related quality of life. Menopause is also considered as a risk for fracture due to osteoporosis, which at later life becomes difficult to manage and causes higher morbidity. So, evaluation of balance and bone density is important in middle-age in women, so that we can plan and administer proper treatment strategies at an early stage which can reduce risk of falls and fractures. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess and compare dynamic balance and bone density in premenopausal and postmenopausal middle-age women.
Methods: Female participants in the age-group of 40-60 years were divided into premenopausal and postmenopausal group based on the criteria of cessation of menstrual cycles for minimum one year. Participants were assessed barefooted for dynamic balance by physical performance mobility tests such as narrow walk test (NWT), Figure-of-8 walk test (F8WT), obstacle walk test (OWT) and normal gait speed (NGS). Bone density was evaluated by using ultrasound bone densitometer at calcaneus in community setting.
Results: The time taken to complete the NWT, F8WT, OWT was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in post-menopausal group, showing dynamic balance is significantly affected in postmenopausal women when compared with premenopausal women in middle-age group. Gait speed was also reduced in both the groups but it was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in postmenopausal group. Also bone density decreases significantly in post-menopausal group showing osteoporosis, premenopausal group also showed osteopenia when assessed by ultrasound bone densitometer in community setting.
Conclusions: Dynamic balance and bone density significantly decreases in post-menopausal middle-age women as compared with pre-menopausal middle-age women.
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