DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20162272

Study of hair dye poisoning and its outcome in tertiary care rural institute

Ramakant Rawat, Manoj Kumar, Prem Shankar Singh, Granth Kumar, Vijay Verma

Abstract


Background: Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is para phenylene diamine (PPD). Due to its easy availability and low cost, it is becoming a common mode of self-poisoning in rural area. A prospective study was planned to assess the clinical profile and outcome in patients with hair dye poisoning.

Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 260 patients of para-phenylene-diamine (hair dye) poisoning, hospitalized in the medical unit of UP Rural Institute of Medical Science and Research, Saifai from January  2011-2014 over a period of  4 years. The diagnosis of PPD poisoning was based on history of ingestion and clinical manifestations. All cases were thoroughly evaluated for different complications and were treated accordingly.

Results: Out of 260 cases enrolled, majority were females and were in the age group of 21-30 years. The intent of poisoning was suicidal in 100% cases. Cervico-facial edema was the most common presentation followed by respiratory distress, hypotension and generalised bodyache. Nephro-toxicity was observed in 58.46% cases. Myocarditis was observed in 11.53% cases. Mortality in PPD poisoning was high (21.53%) due to cardiotoxicity and renal failure

Conclusions: Hair dye (PPD) poisoning is hepato-nephro as well as myo and cardiotoxic.

 


Keywords


Hair dye poisoning, Paraphenylene diamine, Cervico-facial edema, Myocarditis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Verma R, Tiwari N, Jaiswal S, Rastogi V, Singh A. Tiwari DV. Fatal poisoning caused by oral ingestion of a hair dye. Internet J Emerg Intensive Care Med. 2008;11(1):1092-4051.

Nohynek GJ, Fautz R, Benech-Kieffer F, Toutain H. Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004;42(4):517-43.

Filali A, Semlali L. A retrospective study of acute systemic poisoning of paraphenylene diamine in Morocco. Afr J Trad Cam. 2006;3(1):142-9.

Hamdouk MI, Abdelraheem MB, Taha AA, Benghanem M, De Broe ME. Paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning. Clinical Nephrotoxins. 2008;3:871-9.

Jain PK, Agarwal N, Sharma AK, Akhtar A. Prospective study of ingestional hair dye poisoning in Northern India(Prohina). J. Clin. Med. Res.2011;3(1):9-19.

Ashar A. Acute angioedema in paraphenylene diamine poisoning. J Pak Med Assoc. 2003;53(3):120-2.

Sampathkumar K, Sooraj YS, Ajeshkumar RP, Mahaldar AR, Muthiah R. Rhabdomyolysis due to hair dye poisoning. IJCCM. 2007;11(4):212-4.

Brahmi N, Kouraichi N, Biel Y, Mourali S, Thabet H, Mechmeche R et al. Acute myocarditis and myocardial infarction induced by paraphenylene-diamine interest of angiocoronarygraphy. Int J Cardiol. 2006;113:E93-5.

Zeggwagh AA, Abougal R, Abidi K, Madni N, Zekraoui A, Kerkeb O. Left ventricular thrombus and myocarditis induced by paraphenylene diamine poisoning. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2003;22:639-41.

Saito K, Murai T, Yabe K, Hara M. Rhabdomyolysis due to paraphenylenediamine(hair dye)- report of an autopsy case. Nihon Hiogaku Zasshi. 1990;44:469-74.

Abdelraheem MB, El-Tigani MA, Hassan EG, Ali MA, Mohamed IA, Nazik AE. Acute renal failure owing to paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning in Sudanese children. Ann J Trop Paediatr. 2009;29:191-6.

Osman M. Acute poisoning with hair dye containing PPD, the Gezera experience. J Arab Med Spec. 2001:80-1.