Calvarial bone defect regeneration using beta-tricalcium phosphate: a translational research study in rat animal model


  • Ramalingam Sundar Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Pacific Dental College and Hospital, Pacific Academy of Higher Education and Research (PAHER) University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
  • A. Bhagavandas Rai Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Pacific Dental College and Hospital, Pacific Academy of Higher Education and Research (PAHER) University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
  • Naveenkumar Jayakumar Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental College and Hospital, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Darshan D. Divakar Department of Dental Biomaterials Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Levy Mwanawasa Medical University (LMMU), Lusaka, Zambia



Guided bone regeneration, Critical-size defect, Beta-tricalcium phosphate, Micro-computed tomography


Background: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) using osteoconductive graft materials has been used for osseous defect healing. The aim of this translational research study was to design and test a critical size calvarial defect (CSD) model in rats, to test GBR with beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), using histology and micro computed tomography (micro-CT) assessment.

Methods: Female Wistar albino rats (n=10) weighing 300 grams and aged 6-weeks were used and full thickness CSD were created in calvaria following exposure under general anesthesia. CSD were randomly divided into two groups for treatment, based on defect filling material: control group (no graft placed in defect; n=5); and beta-TCP group (defect grafted with beta-TCP; n=5). Both defects were covered with collagen membrane. After 8-weeks of healing the animals were sacrificed and calvarial specimens were subjected to micro-CT and histological assessment.

Results: Based on micro-CT the new bone volume (NBV) was significantly higher in beta-TCP group (3.48±0.27 mm3; p<0.05), than control group (2.88±0.33 mm3). Similarly, new bone mineral density (NBMD) was significantly higher in beta-TCP group (0.426±0.018 g/mm3; p<0.01), than control group (0.243±0.015 g/mm3). Histology revealed greater new bone bridging the entire defect with interspersed graft particles in the beta-TCP group.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, GBR of rat calvarial CSD with beta-TCP and collagen membrane, results in significantly higher NBV and NBMD, and is a reliable and reproducible translational research model.


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How to Cite

Sundar, R., Rai, A. B., Jayakumar, N., & Divakar, D. D. (2022). Calvarial bone defect regeneration using beta-tricalcium phosphate: a translational research study in rat animal model. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 10(11), 2420–2426.



Original Research Articles