DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20223097
Published: 2022-11-25

Comparison of HRCT chest findings among vaccinated and non-vaccinated COVID-19 patients

Neha Kumari, M. Shamim Ahmad, Animesh Gupta, Gaurav Prakash

Abstract


Background: Coronavirus disease 19 was first reported in Wuhan, China and it was declared a pandemic by WHO in March 12, 2020. Vaccination has provided a very effective way to prevent the spread and reduce the severity of this disease. The two vaccines currently approved by the Government of India are Covaxin and Covishield. HRCT is the most valuable tool available to assess the pulmonary involvement in this disease. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vaccination on the severity of pulmonary involvement in COVID-19.  

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a department of radio diagnosis of tertiary health care hospital of Bihar for period of 4 months from April 2021 to July 2021.

Results: The study involved a total of 100 patients (74 were males and 26 females), where 50 were (50%) were unvaccinated and 50 (28.6%) were vaccinated with one or both doses Covishield vaccine. The frequency of disease was least in 14 (7.9%) among fully vaccinated subjects. The CT severity score is less in those who took both doses of the vaccine. The mean CT score of all the patients included in the study was 12.64±11.1. However, the patients who received complete vaccination had significantly low mean CT scores (14.18±7.223) in comparison to the non-vaccinated patients (11.1±6.016).  Fully vaccinated patients had almost low CT severity score indicating mild form of disease.

Conclusions: HRCT is the most sensitive modality to detect severity of COVID-19 pneumonia. Severe lung involvement is more common in the unvaccinated population (32%) as compared with the vaccinated group, in which only 25% members had severe lung involvement.  


Keywords


COVID 19, SARS CoV-2, Covaxin, Covishield, HRCT

Full Text:

PDF

References


Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet. 2020;395(10224):565-74.

Yu P, Zhu J, Zhang Z, Han Y. A Familial Cluster of Infection Associated With the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Indicating Possible Person-to-Person Transmission During the Incubation Period. J Infect Dis. 2020;221(11):1757-61.

Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, Jones FK, Zheng Q, Meredith HR, Azman AS, et al. The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application. Ann Intern Med. 2020;172(9):577-82.

Lee N, Hui D, Wu A, Chan P, Cameron P, Joynt GM, et al. A major outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(20):1986-94.

Assiri A, Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Rabeeah AA, Al-Rabiah FA, Al-Hajjar S, Al-Barrak A, et al. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13(9):752-61.

Yang R, Li X, Liu H, Zhen Y, Zhang X, Xiong Q, et al. Chest CT Severity Score: An Imaging Tool for Assessing Severe COVID-19. Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging. 2020;2(2):e200047.

Kwee TC, Kwee RM. Chest CT in COVID-19: What the Radiologist Needs to Know. Radiographics. 2020;40(7):1848-65.

Pan F, Ye T, Sun P, Gui S, Liang B, Li L, et al. Time Course of Lung Changes at Chest CT during Recovery from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Radiology. 2020;295(3):715-21.

Madhu P, Santhosh D, Madhala K. Comparison study of lung involvement in vaccinated and un vaccinated COVID patients. Int J Health Clin Res. 2021;4(10):229-33.

Wang Y, Dong C, Hu Y, Li C, Ren Q, Zhang X, et al. Temporal Changes of CT Findings in 90 Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Longitudinal Study. Radiology. 2020;296(2):55-64.

Shirani F, Shayganfar A, Hajiahmadi S. COVID-19 pneumonia: a pictorial review of CT findings and differential diagnosis. Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med. 2021;52(1):38.

Hanif N, Rubi G, Irshad N, Ameer S, Habib U, Zaidi SRH. Comparison of HRCT Chest and RT-PCR in Diagnosis of COVID-19. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2021;30(1):S1-S6.

Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, Tang HJ, Hsueh PR. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;55(3):105924.

Haas EJ, Angulo FJ, McLaughlin JM, Anis E, Singer SR, Khan F, et al. Impact and effectiveness of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 cases, hospitalisations, and deaths following a nationwide vaccination campaign in Israel: an observational study using national surveillance data. Lancet. 2021;397(10287):1819-29.

Hill EM, Keeling MJ. Comparison between one and two dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccine prioritization for a fixed number of vaccine doses. J R Soc Interface. 2021;18(182):20210214.

Monin L, Laing AG, Muñoz-Ruiz M, McKenzie DR, Barrio I, Alaguthurai T, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of one versus two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 for patients with cancer: interim analysis of a prospective observational study. Lancet Oncol. 2021;22(6):765-78.

Mallapaty S, Callaway E. What scientists do and don't know about the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID vaccine. Nature. 2021;592(7852):15-7.

Voysey M, Costa CSA, Madhi SA, Weckx LY, Folegatti PM, Aley PK, et al. Single-dose administration and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine: a pooled analysis of four randomised trials. Lancet. 2021;397(10277):881-91.

Verma A, Kumar I, Singh PK, Ansari MS, Singh HA, Sonkar S, et al. Initial comparative analysis of pulmonary involvement on HRCT between vaccinated and non-vaccinated subjects of COVID-19. Eur Radiol. 2022;32(6):4275-83.

Naik B, Anil KS, Rachegowda N, Yashas UL, Revanth RB, Venkata SANR. Severity of COVID-19 Infection Using Chest Computed Tomography Severity Score Index Among Vaccinated and Unvaccinated COVID-19-Positive Healthcare Workers: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study. Cureus. 2022;14(2):e22087.

Modi SD, Shah DH, Mundhra KS, Gandhi B, Shah R, Kagathara V, et al. Comparative Study of CT Severity Index and Outcome in Hospitalised Vaccinated and Non Vaccinated Patients of Covid 19 Pneumonia. J Rad Clin Imag. 2021;4:93-101.

Kachewar S. HRCT Spectrum in post vaccination Covid positive patients. Pakistan J Rad. 2021;31(3):154-9.

Vishwanath T, Rajalakshmi B, Sadananda K, Manjunath C. Association of Chest CT Severity Scores and Vaccination Status in COVID-19 Disease: A Cross-sectional Study. J Clin Diagn Res. 2022;16(2).

Joshi PC, Jahanvi V, Mahajan MS, Patil NCG, Moradiya PG, Pawar SN. Getting Vaccinated Helps: Prospective Study Reveals Lower CT Severity Scores amongst COVID Vaccine Recipients. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2022;31(4):888-92.