Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles via indigenous Anigozanthos manglesii, (red and green kangaroo paw) leaf extract and its potential antibacterial activity

Monaliben Shah, Gérrard Eddy Jai Poinern, Derek Fawcett


Background: Metallic silver nanoparticles with antibacterial properties were biosynthesised for the first time using an indigenous Australian plant Anigozanthos manglesii.

Methods: A practical, straight-forward and eco-friendly technique used the Anigozanthos manglesii leaf extract, which acted as both reducing and capping agents to create stable silver nanoparticles. The antibacterial activities of the nanoparticles were investigated using the Kirby-Bauer sensitivity method.

Results: Characterisation revealed the nanoparticles ranged in size from 50 nm up to 150 nm, and their morphologies included cubes, triangular plates and hexagonal plates. Antibacterial studies revealed Deinococcus was sensitive and susceptible to the biosynthesised nanoparticles. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus Epidermis strains were also found to be less susceptible to the silver nanoparticles.

Conclusions: The present study has shown that silver nanoparticles biosynthesised using Anigozanthos manglesii leaf extracts have antibacterial activity against Deinococcus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus Epidermis bacterial strains.


Antibacterial, Anigozanthos manglesii, Green chemistry, Silver nanoparticles

Full Text:



Parak WJ, Gerion D, Pellegrino T, Zanchet D, Micheel C, Williams SC, et al. Biological Applications of Colloidal Nanocrystals. Nanotechnology. 2003;14(7):15-27.

Sperling RA, Gil PR, Zhang F, Zanella M, Parak WJ. Biological applications of gold nanoparticles. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2008;37:1896-908.

Cai W, Gao T, Hong H, Sun J. Applications of gold nanoparticles in cancer nanotechnology. Nanotechnology, Science and Applications. 2008;1:17-32.

Barakat MA. New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2001;4:361-77.

Smith AM, Duan H, Rhyner MN, Ruan G, Nie S. A Systematic Examination of Surface Coatings on the Optical and Chemical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 2006;8(33):3895-903.

Alshehri AH, Jakubowska M, Młożniak A, Horaczek M, Rudka D, Free C, et al. Enhanced Electrical Conductivity of Silver Nanoparticles for High Frequency Electronic Applications. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 2012;4(12):7007-10.

Salata OV. Applications of nanoparticles in biology and medicine. Journal of Nanobiotechnology. 2004;2(3):1-6.

Zaniewski AM, Schriver M, Lee JG, Crommie MF, Zettl A. Electronic and optical of metal nanoparticles filled graphene sandwiches. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2013;102:023108,1-5.

Le X, Poinern GEJ, Subramaniam S, Fawcett, D. Applications of Nanometre Scale Particles as Pharmaceutical Delivery Vehicles in Medicine. Open Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. 2015;2(2):11-26.

Ai J, Biazar E, Jafarpour M, Montazeri M, Majdi A, Aminifard S, et al. Nanotoxicology and nanoparticle safety in biomedical designs. Int. J. Nanomedicine. 2011;6:1117-27.

Shah M, Fawcett D, Sharma S, Tripathy SK, Poinern GEJ. Green Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles via Biological Entities. Materials. 2015;8:7278-308.

Guangquan L, Dan H, Yongqing Q, Buyuan G, Song G, Yan C. Fungus mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus terreus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012;13:466-76.

Shanmugavadivu M, Kuppusamy S, Ranjithkumar R. Synthesis of pomegranate peel extract mediated silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity. Am. J. Adv. Drug Deliv. 2014;2(2):174-82.

Sastry M, Ahmad A, Khan MI, Kumar R. Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles using fungi and actinomycete. Curr. Sci. 2003;85:162-70.

Lengke M, Southam G. Bioaccumulation of gold by sulphate-reducing bacteria cultured in the presence of gold (I)-thiosulfate complex. Acta. 2006;70:3646-61.

Kuber C, Souza SF. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus fumigates. Colloids Surf B. 2006;47:160-4.

Poinern GEJ, Shah M, Chapman P, Fawcett D. Green biosynthesis of silver nanocubes using the leaf extracts from Eucalyptus macrocarpa. Nano Bulletin. 2013;2(130101):1-5.

Lee SW, Mao C, Flynn C, Belcher AM. Ordering of quantum dots using genetically engineered viruses. Science. 2002;296:892-5.

Gericke M, Pinches A. Biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Hydrometallurgy. 2006;83:132-40.

Mohanpuria P, Rana NK, Yadav SK. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles: technological concepts and future applications. J. Nanopart. Res. 2008;10:507-17.

Kumar V, Yadav SK. Plant-Mediated Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles and Their Applications. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 2009;84(2):151-7.

Malik P, Shankar R, Malik V, Sharma N, Mukherjee TK. Green Chemistry Based Benign Routes for Nanoparticle Synthesis. Journal of Nanoparticles. 2014; Article ID 302429, 14 pages.

Rai M, Yadav A, Gade A. Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnol. Adv. 2009;27:76-83.

Jorgensen JH, Turnidge JD. Susceptibility test methods: dilution and disk diffusion methods. In Murray PR, Baron EJ et al (ed) Manual of clinical microbiology, 9th edn. ASM Press, Washington DC. 2007;1152-72.

Chandan-Singh ML, Vinect-Sharma KR. A green biogenic approach for synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Zingiber officinale. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures. 2011;6(2):535-42.

Zahir AA, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Elango G, Rahuman AA. Efficacy of Plant-Mediated Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles against Sitophilus oryzae. Journal of Biopesticides. 2012;288 (Suppl-5):95-102.

Ahmad N, Sharma S, Alam MK, Singh VN, Shamsi SF, Mehta BR, Fatma A. Rapid Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Dried Medicinal Plant of Basil. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2010;81(1):81-6.