DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20162324

Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and associated habits in Kashmir, India

Tasneem S. Ain, Owais Gowhar, Saima Sultan, Pradeep Tangade

Abstract


Background: A large number of factors may influence the conditions of oral-mucosa and regulate its thresholds against reactions to external irritations and insults. External damage to the tissues may be caused by infections and or other chemical, thermal and mechanical means or there may be some genetic factors involved. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of different oral habits and habit related oral lesions among the study population in Kashmir, India.

Methods: The final study sample comprised of 7000 patients visiting 2 Government Hospitals in Srinagar and Pulwama district, Kashmir, India. All the selected subjects were examined for any oral mucosal lesions. The diagnosis of the lesion was made based on history, clinical features, according to standard guidelines and color atlas.

Results: Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was found to be 8%. Smoker’s palate was the most frequently found oral lesion comprising of 33.89% followed by oral lichen planus and leukoplakia (13.55% each). Other lesions included chemical burns, erythroplakia, OSMF and lichenoid reactions. Subjects were indulged into various habits; the most prevalent being the cigarette smoking (56.46%), followed by hukka and bidi smoking and smokeless tobacco.

Conclusions: The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 8% among the study sample. Subjects were associated with various deleterious habits which were found more in males than females. This study helps in public awareness about the ill effects of oral habits and may motivate them in overcoming their indulgence.

 


Keywords


Oral lesions, Habits, Smoking, Tobacco

Full Text:

PDF

References


Reddy KS, Gupta PC. Report on Tobacco Control in India. India: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; 2004:1633‑7.

Bhawna G. Burden of smoked and smokeless tobacco consumption in India‑results from the Global adult Tobacco Survey India (GATS‑India)‑ 2009‑201. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:3323‑9.

Warnakulasuriya S. Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol. 2009;45:309‑16.

Laskaris G. Color Atlas of Oral Diseases. Stuttgart: Thieme Medical; 1994:1‑430.

Cebeci ARI, Gülşahı A, Kamburoğlu K, et al. Prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal lesions in an adult Turkish population. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2009;14(6):E272–77.

Crivelli MR, Domínguez FV, Adler IL, Keszler A. Frequency and distribution of oral lesions in elderly patients. Rev Asoc Odontol Argent. 1990;78(1):55–8.

Shulman JD, Beach MM, Rivera-Hidalgo F. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in U.S. adults: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004;135(9):1279-86.

Fleishman R, Peles DB, Pisanti S. Oral mucosal lesions among elderly in Israel. J Dent Res.1985;64(5):831-6.

Ikeda N, Handa Y, Khim SP, Durward C, Axéll T, Mizuno T. Prevalence study of oral mucosal lesions in a selected Cambodian population. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1995;23(1):49-54.

Corrêa L, Frigerio ML, Sousa SC, Novelli MD. Oral lesions in elderly population: a biopsy survey using 2250 histopathological records. Gerodontology. 2006;23(1):48-54.

Dehler K, Brannon R, Muzyka B. Biopsied oral lesions in a geriatric population. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pat. 2003;95(4):417.

Zain RB, Ikeda N, Razak IA, Axell T, Majid ZA, Gupta PC, et al. A national epidemiological survey of oral mucosal lesions in Malaysia. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1997;25(5):377-83.

Cebeci AR, Gulsahi A, Kamburoglu K, Orhan BK, Oztas B. Preva¬lence and distribution of oral mucosal lesions in an adult Turkish population. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2009;14(6):E272-7.

Al-Mobeeriek A, AlDosari AM. Prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients. Ann Saudi Med. 2009;29(5):365-8.

Kovac-Kovacic M, Skaleric U. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in a population in Ljubljana, Slovenia. J Oral Pathol Med. 2000;29(7):331-5.

Mathew AL, Pai KM, Sholapurkar AA, Vengal M. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India. Indian J Dent Res. 2008;19(2):99-103.

Kaur J, Jain DC. Tobacco control policies in India: Implementation and challenges. Indian J Public Health. 2011;55:220-7.

Chadda R, Sengupta S. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents. Tobacco Induced Diseases. 2003;1(1):8.

Murthy NS, Mathew A. Cancer epidemiology, prevention and control. Curr Sci. 2004;86:518-27.

Saraswathi TR, Ranganathan K, Shanmugam S, Sowmya R, Narasimhan PD, Gunaseelan R: Prevalence of oral lesions in relation to habits: Crosssectional study in South India. Indian J Dent Res. 2006;17(3):121-5.

Patel P, Patel V. Oral mucosal lesions among residence of a town in north Gujarat. National Journal of medical research. 2011;1(1):3-6.

Mehrotra R, Thomas S, Nair P, Pandya S, Singh M, Nigam NS, et al. Prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions in Vidisha. BMC Research Notes. 2010 3:23.

Axell T, Holmstrup P, Karmer IR, Pindborg JJ, Shear M. International seminar on oral leukoplakia and associated lesions related to tobacco habits. Comm Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1984;12:145-54.

Waal VI, Schepman KP, Meij VEH, Smeele LE. Oral leukoplakia: A clinicopathological review. Oral Oncol. 1997;33:29-301.

Gonzalez-Moles MA, Scully C, Gil-Montoya JA. Oral lichen planus: Controversies surrounding malignant transformation. Oral Dis. 2008;14:229-43.

Sharma. Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis in patients visiting dental college in rural area of jaipur, Rajasthan. JIAOMR. 2012;24(1):1-14.

Mirbod SM, Ahing SI. Tobacco-Associated Lesions of the Oral Cavity: Part I. Nonmalignant Lesions. J Can Dent Assoc. 2000;66:252-6.

Sridharan G. Epidemiology, control and prevention of tobacco induced oral mucosal lesions in India. Indian J Cancer. 2014;51:80-5.