DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20162335

Bacterial and fungal agents causing lower respiratory tract infections in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

Jithendra Kandati, Suresh Kumar Boorsu, Muni lakshmi Ponugoti, Vedadruthy Samudrala

Abstract


Background: HIV the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was considered a global problem after its discovery in 1981. Lower respiratory infections are 25 fold more common in HIV cases, than in the general community, occurring in up to 90 cases per 1000 person–years. The present study was conducted to determine the regional profile of respiratory pathogens including opportunistic implicated in lower respiratory tract infections in HIV cases.

Methods: 200 HIV patients diagnosed with lower respiratory infection were enrolled as subjects. Expectorated, induced sputum and Broncho alveolar lavage were processed and bacterial and fungal pathogens were identified as per standard guidelines.

Results: M. tuberculosis was the common pathogen (44.08%), followed by bacterial (21.71%) which include predominant Gram negative bacteria. Candida sp was the common fungal pathogen (16.45%) followed by Aspergillus sp (12.83%), Cryptococcus sp (1.97%). Most important observation of the study was isolation of nine cases of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia.

Conclusions: Bacterial and fungal agents form the main cause of lower respiratory infections in HIV individuals. Most of them are polymicrobial and an increasing trend of pneumocystis pneumonia is observed.

 


Keywords


HIV, Broncho alveolar lavage, Pneumocystis jiroveci, Aspergillus sp

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