An in vitro study of probiotic activity exhibited by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus on oral isolates of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

Authors

  • Ameena M. Naushad Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical Education, Centre for Professional and Advanced Studies, Kottayam, Kerala, India https://orcid.org/0009-0002-2128-9096
  • Jenny M. Sunil Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical Education, Centre for Professional and Advanced Studies, Kottayam, Kerala, India https://orcid.org/0009-0004-5692-1076
  • Harish Kumar K. S. Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical Education, Centre for Professional and Advanced Studies, Kottayam, Kerala, India
  • Sajimi Sathar Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical Education, Centre for Professional and Advanced Studies, Kottayam, Kerala, India
  • Roopa Mathews Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical Education, Centre for Professional and Advanced Studies, Kottayam, Kerala, India
  • Anila Gopal Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical Education, Centre for Professional and Advanced Studies, Kottayam, Kerala, India

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20231618

Keywords:

Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Caries

Abstract

Background: Oral infections caused by microorganisms have led to increased risk of oral health problems like dental caries (DC). Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are the organisms responsible for DC. The goal of the presented study was to investigate the potential of probiotics to prevent and treat DC. An in vitro assay was developed to investigate several probiotic strains for their ability to inhibit the aforementioned oral pathogens.

Methods: 40 oral isolates of Streptococcus mutans and 51 oral isolates of Candida albicans were tested for probiotic activity against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus using agar overlay interference technique as prescribed by Fleming et al.

Results: The zone of inhibition shown by L. acidophilus was higher than L. rhamnosus against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans.

Conclusions: In conclusion the two probiotic strains L. acidophilus and L. rhamnosus exhibited inhibitory activity on S. mutans and C. albicans respectively in vitro.

References

Dewhirst FE, Chen T, Izard J, Paster BJ, Tanner AC, Yu WH, et al. The human oral microbiome. J Bacteriol. 2010;192(19):5002-17.

Samot J, Badet C. Antibacterial activity of probiotic candidates for oral health. Anaerobe. 2013;19:34-8.

van Houte J. Role of micro-organisms in caries etiology. J Dent Res. 1994;73:672-81.

Banas JA. Virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans. Front Biosci. 2004;9:1267-77.

Pereira D, Seneviratne CJ, Koga-Ito CY, Samaranayake LP. Is the oral fungal pathogen Candida albicans a cariogen? Oral Dis. 2018;24(4):518-26.

Fejerskov O, Nyvad B, Kidd E. Dental caries: the disease and its clinical management. Copenhagen: Blackwell Monksgaard. 2003.

Selwitz RH, Ismail AI, Pitts NB. Dental caries. Lancet. 2007;369:51-9.

Cagetti MG, Mastroberardino S, Milia E, Cocco F, Lingström P, Campus G. The use of probiotic strains in caries prevention: a systematic review. Nutrients. 2013;5(7):2530-50.

Hoare A, Marsh PD, Diaz PI. Ecological therapeutic opportunities for oral diseases. Microbiol Spectr. 2017;5(4).

Samaranayake LP, Hughes A, Weetman DA, MacFarlane TW. Growth and acid production of Candida species in human saliva supplemented glucose. J Oral Pathol. 1986;15:251-4.

Cannon RD, Nand AK, Jenkinson HF. Adherence of Candida albicans to human salivary components adsorbed to hydroxylapatite. Microbiol. 1995;141:213-9.

Sen BH, Safavi KE, Spångberg LS. Colonization of Candida albicans on cleaned human dental hard tissues. Arch Oral Biol. 1997;42:513-20.

Makihira S, Nikawa H, Tamagami M. Bacterial and Candida adhesion to intact and denatured collagen in vitro. Mycoses. 2002;45:389-92.

Sardi JCO, Scorzoni L, Bernardi T, Fusco-Almeida AM, Mendes Giannini MJS. Candida species: current epidemiology, pathogenicity, biofilm formation, natural antifungal products and new therapeutic options. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62(Pt 1):10-24.

Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria. World health organization and food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. Cordoba, Argentina. 2001.

Comelli EM, Guggenheim B, Stingele F, Neeser JR. Selection of dairy bacterial strains as probiotics for oral health. Eur J Oral Sci. 2002;110(3):218–24.

Näse L, Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Saxelin M, Pönkä A, Poussa T, et al. Effect of longterm consumption of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, in milk on dental caries and caries risk in children. Caries Res. 2001;35(6):412-20.

Haukioja A. Probiotics and oral health. Eur J Dent. 2010;4:348-55.

Prakash S, Tomaro-Duchesneau C, Saha S, Cantor A. The gut microbiota and human health with an emphasis on the use of microencapsulated bacterial cells. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;981214.

Tomaro-Duchesneau C, Saha S, Malhotra M, Coussa-Charley M, Al-Salami H, et al. Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 has a greater ferulic acid production compared to other ferulic acid esterase producing Lactobacilli. Int J Probio Prebio. 2012;7.

Fleming HP, Etchells JL, Costilow RN. Microbial inhibition by an isolate of Pediococcus from cucumber brines. Appl Microbiol. 1975;30(6):1040-2.

Simark-Mattsson C, Emilson C-G, Grahn Hakansson E. Lactobacillus-mediated interference of mutans streptococci in cariesfree vs. caries-active subjects. Eur J Oral Sci. 2007;115(4):308-14.

Saha S, Tomaro-Duchesneau C, Tabrizian M, Prakash S. Probiotics as oral health biotherapeutics. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012;12:1207-20.

Saraf K, Shashikanth MC, Priy T, Sultana N, Chaitanya NC. Probiotics--do they have a role in medicine and dentistry? J Assoc Physicians India. 2010;58:488-90.

Sookkhee S, Chulasiri M, Prachyabrued W. Lactic acid bacteria from healthy oral cavity of Thai volunteers: Inhibition of oral pathogens. J Appl Microbiol. 2001;90(2):172-9.

Hedayati-Hajikand T, Lundberg U, Eldh C, Twetman S. Effect of probiotic chewing tablets on early childhood caries – a randomized controlled trial. BMC Oral Health. 2015;15(1):1-5.

Haukioja A, Loimaranta V, Tenovuo J. Probiotic bacteria affect the composition of salivary pellicle and streptococcal adhesion in vitro. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2008;23(4):336-43.

Samot J, Badet C. Antibacterial activity of probiotic candidates for oral health. Anaerobe. 2013;19:34-8.

Hasslof P, Hedberg M, Twetman S, Stecksen-Blicks C. Growth inhibition of oral mutans Streptococci and Candida by commercial probiotic Lactobacilli-- an in vitro study. BMC Oral Health. 2010;10:18.

Kõll P, Mändar R, Marcotte H, Leibur E, Mikelsaar M, Hammarström L. Characterization of oral Lactobacilli as potential probiotics for oral health. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2008;23:139-47.

Anderson MH, Shi W. A probiotic approach to caries management. Pediatr Dent. 2006;28(2):151-3.

Downloads

Published

2023-05-29

How to Cite

Naushad, A. M., Sunil, J. M., Kumar K. S., H., Sathar, S., Mathews, R., & Gopal, A. (2023). An in vitro study of probiotic activity exhibited by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus on oral isolates of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans . International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 11(6), 2062–2067. https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20231618

Issue

Section

Original Research Articles