Morphological variations of the thyroid gland

Savitha Veerahanumaiah, K. R. Dakshayani, Sharada B. Menasinkai

Abstract


Background:The knowledge of various morphological & developmental anomalies of thyroid gland will help the surgeons in better planning of safe & effective surgery. Considering these facts we studied the variations of thyroid gland.

Methods:The material for the present study was collected from the department of forensic medicine, MMC & RI, Mysore, which includes 56 male and 33 female adult postmortem cadavers aged between 18 to 80 years. A dissection was carried out to expose thyroid glands & variations were observed in the morphology of thyroid gland.

Results: 1) 9% of specimens had agenesis of isthmus. 2) 46% of specimens had pyramidal lobe. 3) 41% of specimens had levator glanduli thyroidae. 4) 2.24 % of specimens had accessory thyroid tissue.

Conclusion:This study highlights the various morphological anomalies of the thyroid gland which forms cornerstone to safe & effective surgery.


Keywords


Thyroid gland, isthmus, Pyramidal lobe, Levator glanduli thyroidae

Full Text:

PDF

References


Sinnatamby CS. Head, neck & spine - triangles of neck. In: Sinnatamby CS, eds. Last’s Anatomy, Regional and Applied. 10th ed. London: Elsevier-Churchill Livingstone; 1999: 330-331.

Ranganathan TS. Levator glandulae thyroidae. In: Ranganathan TS, eds. A Textbook of Human Anatomy. 6th ed. New Delhi: S. Chand and Company Ltd; 2002: 496-497.

Strachan MWJ, Walker BR. Endocrine disease. In: Boon NA, Colledge NR, Walker BR, Hunter JAA, eds. Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine. 20th ed. New Delhi: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2006: 744-762.

Pastor VJ, Gil VJ, De Paz Fernandez FJ, Cachorro MB. Agenesis of the thyroid isthmus. Eur J Anat. 2006;10:83-4.

Gangbo E, Lacombe D, Alberti EM, Taine L, Saura R, Carles D. Trisomy 22 with thyroid isthmus agenesis and absent gall bladder. Genet Couns. 2004;15:311-5.

Kaur HS, Kumar U, Bajwa SJS, Kalyan GS. Absent Thyroid isthmus: embryological and clinical implications of rare variations of thyroid gland revisited. Thyroid Res Pract. 2013;10:80-2.

Dixit D, Shilpa MB, Harsh MP, Ravishankar MV. Agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland in adult human cadavers: a case series. Cases J. 2009;2:6640.

Geraci G, Pisello F, Li Volsi F, Modica G, Sciumè C. The importance of pyramidal lobe in thyroid surgery. G Chir. 2008 Nov-Dec;29(11-12):479-82.

Prakash, Thimmaiah Rajini, Archana Ramachandran, Geethanjali Basavaraj Savalgi, Sivacharan Panchagnula Venkata, Varsha Mokhasi. Variations in the anatomy of the thyroid gland: clinical implications of a cadaver study. Anat Sci Int (Japan Assoc Anat). 2012;87(1):45-9.

Gregory JK, Guse DM. Unique variant of levator glandulae thyroideae muscle. Clin Anat. 2007;20:966-7.

Soemmerring ST. De muscularis, tendinibus ET buris mucosis. In: Soemmerring ST, eds. Frankfurt is Main. Clossius ET Schreger; 1974: 128.

Veena kulkarni, Sankeswari Sreepadma, S. K. Deshpande. Morphological variations of the Thyroid gland. Medica Innovatica. 2012 Dec;1(2):35-8.

Ranade AV, Rai R, Pai MM, Nayak SR, Prakash, Krishnamurthy A, et al. Anatomical variations of the thyroid gland: possible surgical implications. Singapore Med J. 2008;49:831-4.

Hussein Muktyaz, Yadav Birendra, Saxena Dhiraj, Sharma Kr. Arun. Anatomical variations of thyroid gland and its clinical significance in North Indian population. Glob J Biol Agricul Health Sci. 2013;2(2):12-6.

Tanriover O, Comunoglu N, Eren B, Comunoglu C, Turkmen N, Bilgen S, et al . Morphometric features of the thyroid gland: a cadaveric study of Turkish people. Via Medica. 2011;70(2):103-8.

Marshall CF. Variations in the form of the thyroid gland in man. J Anat Physiol. 1995;29:234-9.

Nurunnabi ASM, Mahbub S, Perven HA, Ara S. Morphometric study of the isthmus of the thyroid gland in Bangladeshi cadaver. Nepal J Med Sci. 2013;2(2):81-4.

Seheli Zannat Sultana, Mohsin Khalil, Manjurul Karim Khan, Mst. Laila Anjuman Banu, Zubaida Gulshan Ara, Fakhrul Amin Mohammad Hasanul Banna. Incidence of presence & variation in Anatomical position of isthmus of thyroid gland in Bangladeshi cadaver. Bangladesh J Anat. 2011 Jan;9(1):26-9.