Renal involvement in COVID-19: a review report

Authors

  • Pinki Pandey Department of Pathology, UPUMS, Saifai, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Megha Palli Department of Pathology, MSD ASMC, Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Anshul Sawhney Department of Dentistry, MSD ASMC, Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Alok Dixit Department of Clinical Pharmacology, UPUMS, Saifai, Uttar Pradesh, India

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20231668

Keywords:

COVID-19, Renal, ACE 2, Acute tubule injury

Abstract

COVID-19 is recent emerging pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome- Coronavirus). It is seen mainly affecting lungs, but many recent studies have shown involvement of hematological, kidney, gastrointestinal and other systems. In kidneys it mainly affects the tubules and interstitial areas. The main pathology behind involvement of renal system in COVID-19 is due to presence of ACE 2 receptors in proximal tubules. These receptors are same like that found in lungs and they form binding sites for coronavirus and hence causing the disease. Therefore, patients presenting with raised serum urea and creatinine should be checked for potential renal damage caused by virus and their urine samples should also be tested for presence of coronavirus. Effective testing and prompt management will prevent this virus from being transmitted in community.

References

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020;323(11):1061-9.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395:497-506.

Chu KH, Tsang WK, Tang CS. Acute renal impairment in coronavirus-associated severe acute respiratory syndrome. Kidney Int. 2005;67:698-705.

Alsaad KO, Hajeer AH, Al Balwi M. Histopathology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection-clinicopathological and ultrastructural study. Histopathology. 2018;72:516-24.

Su S, Wong G, Shi W. Epidemiology, Genetic recombination, and pathogenesis of coronaviruses. Trends Microbiol. 2016;24:490-502.

Peiris JSM, Chu CM, Cheng VCC. Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study. Lancet. 2003;361:1767-72.

Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020;579:270-73.

Li Z, Wu M, Guo J, Yao J, Liao X, Song S et al. Caution on kidney dysfunctions of 2019-nCoV patients 2020. MedRxiv. 2020;2.

Kumar A, Zarychanski R, Pinto R, et al. Critically ill patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection in Canada. JAMA. 2009;302:1872–1879.

Cheng Y, Luo R, Wang K, Zhang M, Wang Z, Dong L et al. Kidney disease is associated with in-hospital death of patients with COVID-19. Kidney Int. 2020;97(5):829-38.

Wang K, Chen W, Zhou YS, et al. SARS-CoV-2 invades host cells via a novel route: CD147-spike protein. bioRxiv. 2020;10.

Su H, Yang M, Wan C, Yi L, Tang F, Zhu H et al. Renal histopathological analysis of 26 postmortem findings of patients with COVID-19 in China. Kidney International. 2020;1-10.

Mubarak M, Nasri H. COVID-19 nephropathy; an emerging condition caused by novel coronavirus infection. J Nephropathol. 2020;9(3):e21.

Mou Z, Zhang X. The Dangers of Acute Kidney Injury in COVID-19 Patients: A Meta-Analysis of First Reports. MedRxiv. 2010.

Volbeda M, Vatencia DJ, Heuvel M, Zijlstra JG, Franssen CFM, Voort PHJ et al. Acute and chronic histopathological findings in renal biopsies in COVID-19. Clinical and experimental Medicine. 2022;1

Gambella A, Barreca A, Biancone L, Roccatello D, Peruzzi L, Besso L et al. Spectrum of Kidney Injury Following COVID-19 Disease: Renal Biopsy Findings in a Single Italian Pathology Service. Biomolecules. 2022;12:298.

May RM, Cassol C, Hannoudi A, Larsen CP, Lerma EV, Haun RS et al. A multi-center retrospective cohort study defines the spectrum of kidney pathology in Coronavirus 2019 Disease (COVID-19). Kidney Int. Dec 2021;100(6):1303-15.

Velez JCQ, Caza T, Larsen CP. COVAN is the new HIVAN: the re-emergence of collapsing glomerulopathy with COVID-19. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2020;16(10):565-7.

Kataoka M, Ishida K, Ogasawara K, Nozaki T, Satoh YI, Sata T et al. Serial section array scanning electron microscopy analysis of cells from lung autopsy specimens following fatal A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza virus infection. J Virol. 2019;93(19):e00644-19.

Zhou M, Zhang X, Qu J. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a clinical update. Front Med. 2020;10.

Yang X, Yu Y, Xu J, Shu H, Xia J, Liu H et al. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;1.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX et al. China Medical Treatment Expert Group for COVID-19. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020;1

Konstantinides SV, Meyer G, Becattini C, Bueno H, Geersing GJ, Harjola VP et al. ESC Scientific Document Group. 2019 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism developed in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society (ERS). Eur Heart J. 2020;41(4):543-603.

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):507-13.

Downloads

Published

2023-05-29

How to Cite

Pandey, P., Palli, M., Sawhney, A., & Dixit, A. (2023). Renal involvement in COVID-19: a review report. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 11(6), 2338–2341. https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20231668

Issue

Section

Review Articles