Estimation of adiponectin levels in diabetic, non-diabetic fatty liver diseases and healthy controls

Ashish Kumar Pandey, Umesh Jalihal, Pramila Kalra, Vanitha MN. Gowda, Vinay MD. Prabhu

Abstract


Background:Estimation of adiponectin levels in diabetic and non-diabetic fatty liver and healthy controls.

Methods:We studied 25 subjects for diabetic fatty liver, 25 subjects for non-diabetic fatty liver and 25 healthy controls. Clinical evaluation included anthropometric measurements, BMI, biochemical investigations and adiponectin estimation by ELISA.

Results: There were 15 males (60%) and 10 (40%)females subjects in the DFL group, 18 males (72%) and 7 females (28%) subjects in the NDFL group and 13 males (52%) and 12 females (48%) subjects in the control group. 80% (20) of the DFL patients and 72% (18) subjects of NDFL group had BMI >25kg/m2. 80% (12 males and 8 females) of subjects in the DFL group and 68% (12 males and 5 females) had a waist circumference that indicated central obesity as per Indian cut-offs (>90 cm for females and >80 cm for males). The mean adiponectin (μg/ml) ± SD levels in DFL were 4.03 ± 0.43, NDFL was 5.01 ± 0.55 and in controls was 7.63 ± 0.66, the difference being statistically significant with P <0.001. The difference in the adiponectin levels was statistically significant between each of the three groups with P <0.001. There was no difference in serum adiponectin levels between males and females in all three groups.

Conclusion:The chief conclusion of this study are that serum adiponectin levels are lower in subjects with NAFLD than those without it; adiponectin levels are inversely related to the degree of steatosis in NAFLD, with the lowest levels in more severe forms of steatosis.

 


Keywords


Adiponectin, Fatty liver, Diabetes mellitus, Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ye R, Scherer PE. Adiponectin, driver or passenger on the road to insulin sensitivity? Mol Metab. 2013 Aug;2(3):133-41.

Daniele G, Guardado Mendoza R, Winnier D, Fiorentino TV, Pengou Z, Cornell J, et al. The inflammatory status score including IL-6, TNF-α, osteopontin, fractalkine, MCP-1 and adiponectin underlies whole-body insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acta Diabetol. 2014 Feb;51(1):123-31.

Prakash J, Mittal B, Awasthi S, Agarwal CG, Srivastava N. Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity: association with insulin resistance. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2013 Apr;28(2):158-63.

Mather KJ, Goldberg RB. Clinical use of adiponectin as a marker of metabolic dysregulation. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jan;28(1):107-17.

Williams KH, Shackel NA, Gorrell MD, McLennan SV, Twigg SM. Diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a pathogenic duo. Endocr Rev. 2013 Feb;34(1):84-129.

Finelli C, Tarantino G. What is the role of adiponectin in obesity related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease? World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Feb;19(6):802-12.

Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, et al. American Heart Association; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 2005;112:2735-52.

The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:S5-20.

Monica Manual. Population survey data component. Section 1, Part III, 1998. Available at: http:// www. thl.fi / publications/monica/ monograph_cd/docs/manual/part3/iii-1.htm. Accessed 28 February 2014.

Snehalata C, Viswanathan V, Ramachandran A. Cut-off values for normal anthropometric variables in Asian-Indian adults. Diabetes Care. 2003 May;26(5):1380-4.

World Health Organization. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications: report of a WHO consultation. part1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Geneva, World Health Org. 2006;Appendix 3:37.

Joseph AE, Saverymuttu SH, al-Sam S, Cook MG, Maxwell JD. Comparison of liver histology with ultrasonography in assessing diffuse parenchymal liver disease. Clin Radiol. 1991;43:26-31.

Misra A, Chowbey P, Makkar BM, Vikram NK, Wasir JS, Chadha D, et al. Consensus statement for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome for Asian Indians and recommendations for physical activity, medical and surgical management. J Associ Physicians India. 2009;57:160-70.

Pagano C, Soardo G, Esposito W, Fallo F, Basan L, Donnini D, et al. Plasma adiponectin is decreased in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005;152:113-8.

Sargin H, Sargin M, Gozu H, Orcun A, Baloglu G, Ozisik M, et al. Adiponectin level a predictor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in nondiabetic male patients? World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11(37):5874-7.

Sandhya N, Gokulakrishnan K, Ravikumar R, Mohan V, Balasubramanyam M. Association of hypoadiponectinemia with hypoglutathionemia in NAFLD subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. Disease Markers. 2010;29:213-21.

Buechler C, Wanninger J, Neumeier M. Adiponectin, a key adipokine in obesity related liver diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:2801-11.

Kumar R, Prakash S, Chhabra S, Singla V, Madan K, Datta Gupta S, et al. Association of pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipokines & oxidative stress with insulin resistance & non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Indian J Med Res. 2012 Aug;(136):229-36.

Khoo CM, Sairazi S, Taslim S, Gardner D, Wu Y, Lee J, et al. Ethnicity modifies the relationships of insulin resistance, inflammation, and adiponectin with obesity in a multiethnic Asian population. Diabetes Care. 2011 May;34(5):1120-6.

Rajkovic N, Zamaklar M, Lalic K, Jotic A, Lukic L, Milicic T, et al. Relationship between obesity, adipocytokines and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetes: relevance for cardiovascular risk prevention. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Apr;11(4):4049-65.

Kishida K, Kim KK, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y, Kang HC, Shimomura I. Relationships between circulating adiponectin levels and fat distribution in obese subjects. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2011;18(7):592-5.

WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;363:157-63.

Frayn KN, Arner P, Yki-Järvinen H. Fatty acid metabolism in adipose tissue, muscle and liver in health and disease. Essays Biochem. 2006;42:89-103.

Marchesini G, Brizi M, Bianchi G, Tomassetti S, Bugianesi E, Lenzi M, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a feature of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. 2001 Aug;50(8):1844-50.

Chitturi S, Farrell GC. Etiopathogenesis of nonalcoholicsteatohepatitis. Semin Liver Dis. 2001;21:27-41.

Izadi M, Goodarzi MT, SamariKhalaj H, Khorshidi D, Doali H. Serum adiponectin levels are inversely correlated with insulin resistance in obese men with type 2 diabetes. Int J Endocriol Metab. 2011;9(1):253-7.

Fabbrini E, Sullivan S, Klein S. Obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: biochemical, metabolic and clinical implications. Hepatology. 2010 Feb;51(2):679-89.

Younossi ZM, Jarrar M, Nugent C. A novel diagnostic biomarker panel for obesity-related nonalcoholicsteatohepatitis (NASH). Obest Surg. 2008;18:1430-7.

Polyzos SA, Kountouras J, Zavos C, Tsiaousi E. The role of adiponectin in the pathogenesis and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010;12:365-83.

Turer AT, Scherer PE. Adiponectin: mechanistic insights and clinical implications. Diabetologia. 2012;55:2319-26.

Fasshauer M, Klein J, Neumann S, Eszlinger M, Paschke R. Hormonal regulation of adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Communicat. 2002;290:1084-9.

Flechtner-Mors M, George SN, Oeztuerk S, Haenle MM, Koenig W, Imhof A, et al. Association of adiponectin with hepatic steatosis: a study of 1349 subjects in a random population sample. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:207.

Pisto P, Ukkola O, Santaniemi M, Kesäniemi YA. Plasma adiponectin: an independent indicator of liver fat accumulation. Metabolism. 2011;60:1515-20.