Characterization and frequency of biofilms in adenotonsillitis: a retrospective study from a tertiary hospital in North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors

  • Hassan Musa Chiwar Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
  • Hajja Inna Muhammad Mailafiya Department of Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
  • Isa Saidu Isa Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
  • Fatima Aliyu Chiroma Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20232762

Keywords:

Adenotonsillitis, Bacterial biofilm, Fungal biofilm, Congo red stain, GMS stain

Abstract

Background: Adenotonsillitis, a common condition characterized by inflammation of the adenoids and tonsils, is caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens. Biofilm formation has been linked to disease chronicity and antibiotic resistance. However, the role of biofilms in adenotonsillitis remains poorly understood. This study aims to explore biofilms in adenotonsillitis biopsies, focusing on their characterization, frequency, and demographic distribution by determining the expression of polysaccharides in the biofilm matrix using Congo red stain, determining the presence and frequency of bacterial as well as fungal biofilms in adenotonsillar tissue, investigating any potential associations with disease severity, and evaluating the age and sex distribution of patients with adenotonsillitis.

Methods: This retrospective study analyzed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded adenotonsillitis biopsies (n=50) collected from the university of Maiduguri teaching hospital. The expression of polysaccharides in the biofilm matrix was assessed using congo red stain. Bacterial and fungal biofilms were visualized using crystal violet and Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) stains, respectively. Data on patient demographics, diagnoses, and biofilm characteristics were analyzed.

Results: Adenoidtonsillitis was the most common diagnosis (82%), predominantly affecting children aged 0-9 years (76%). Gram's reaction was positive in 70% of cases, while Congo red staining indicated polysaccharide expression in 60%. GMS staining revealed fungal elements in 18% of cases.

Conclusions: This study sheds light on the characterization and frequency of bacterial and fungal biofilms in adenotonsillitis, emphasizing importance of biofilms in disease development and persistence. Understanding biofilm-associated infections can improve diagnostic and treatment strategies for adenotonsillitis in Nigeria and beyond

 

References

Galli J, Calò L, Ardito F, Imperiali M, Bassotti E. Adenotonsillitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, and Treatment. J Int Med Res. 2017;45(4):1512-9.

Costerton JW, Stewart PS, Greenberg EP. Bacterial Biofilms: A Common Cause of Persistent Infections. Science. 1999;284(5418):1318-22.

Hoa M, Tomovic S, Nistico L, Hall-Stoodley L, Stoodley P, Sachdeva L et al. Identification of Adenoid Biofilms with Middle Ear Pathogens in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Sinusitis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76(11):1632-8.

Donlan RM. Biofilms: Microbial Life on Surfaces. Emerging Infect Dis. 2002;8(9):881-90.

World Medical Association. 2013. Declaration of Helsinki - Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. Available at: https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/. Accessed on 20 June, 2023.

Arciola CR, Campoccia D, Montanaro L, Speziale P. Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus Implant Infections. A Review of Molecular Mechanisms and Implications for Biofilm-Resistant Materials. Biomaterials, 2015;33(26):5967-82.

O'Toole GA. Microtiter Dish Biofilm Formation Assay. J Visualized Exp. 2011;(47):e2437.

Ramage G, Mowat E, Jones B, Williams C, Lopez-Ribot J. Our Current Understanding of Fungal Biofilms. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2009;35(4):340-55.

Onyeagwara NC, Okhakhu AL, Eche VC. Prevalence and management of sore throats and tonsillitis in a boarding school in Benin City. Ann Biomed Sci. 2018;1596-6569.

Iliyasu YS, Mohammed AU, Abdulrazak A, Dotiro C, Ibrahim BM, Hamisu A et al. Adenoid and Tonsil Hypertrophy in Zaria, North Western Nigeria: Review of Clinical Presentation and Surgical Outcome: J West Afr Coll Surg. 2022;12(1):23-7.

Maduka DU, James OA, Nneamaka E, Nneka GM, Somkene O, Linda A et al. The profile of microorganisms that associate with acute tonsillitis in children and their antibiotics sensitivity pattern in Nigeria: Scientific Reports. 2021;11:20084.

Veraluce PC, Leandro AC, Fabiano SM, Edson JMF, Juliana LC, Carla A et al. Staphylococcus aureus in tonsils of patients with recurrent tonsillitis: prevalence, susceptibility profile, and genotypic characterization. Brazilian J Infect Dis. 2019;8-14.

Richard AC, Brian TF. Anatomical Evidence of Microbial Biofilms in Tonsillar Tissues A Possible Mechanism to Explain Chronicity: J Am Med Association. 2003;129(6):634-6.

Nuutinen J, Kunnas K, Seppä J, Kärjä J, Kolonen S. The mycotic flora of adenoids and antibodies to Candida albicans in children: Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1986;243(3):194-6.

Alyaa A, Emad M. Sex differences in tonsillitis: Dalhousie Med J. 2008;35(1).

Downloads

Published

2023-08-31

How to Cite

Chiwar, H. M., Mailafiya, H. I. M., Isa, I. S., & Chiroma, F. A. (2023). Characterization and frequency of biofilms in adenotonsillitis: a retrospective study from a tertiary hospital in North-Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 11(9), 3156–3162. https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20232762

Issue

Section

Original Research Articles