COVID-19 and fear processing


  • Pravin R. Rathod Department of Anatomy, Spartan Health Sciences University, West Indies
  • Santhi. P. Rathod Department of Histology, Spartan Health Sciences University, West Indies
  • Rishabh R. Kandwal School of Medicine, Spartan Health Sciences University, West Indies
  • Geo J. Panicker School of Medicine, Spartan Health Sciences University, West Indies



COVID-19, Amygdala, Conditional fear, Memory


The world faces a global crisis that encompasses health, financial, and psychological aspects as a result of the coronavirus disease. While the health crisis is significant, it is important to recognize that the human and social crises that have emerged are equally impactful. These crises have resulted in various negative outcomes, such as social rejection, economic disparity, unemployment, and mental distress. Fear is a significant psychological barrier that can impede recovery from any disease process, and thus, it plays a critical role in determining the mortality and morbidity of any given disease. The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a pervasive fear of infection that has further exacerbated the situation. This study explored the mechanisms by which humans may have elicited conditional fear, using the COVID-19 pandemic as a specific case study. Our goal was to examine the process of fear in humans by exploring our knowledge of neuroanatomy and the systemic response regulated by the autonomic nervous system.


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How to Cite

Rathod, P. R., Rathod, S. P., Kandwal, R. R., & Panicker, G. J. (2023). COVID-19 and fear processing. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 11(11), 4255–4259.



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