Morphometric evaluation of the kidney and its main renal artery

Mutyalapati Venkata Ramulu, Lokadolalu Chandracharya Prasanna


Background: With the increasing incidence of renal transplantations and advent of modern imaging techniques in the current era, the knowledge of renal artery variations in their position of origin from abdominal aorta, level of origin from the superior mesenteric artery, pattern of their division towards the renal hilum, and the additional branches from the renal arteries should be well known for preparing renovascular surgical and radiological interventions.

Methods: Fifty specimens from 25 adult human embalmed cadavers were taken from the department of anatomy and were studied by dissection method. Morphometric data of the specimens dissected were recorded using vernier calipers.

Results: Though morphometric analysis of both the kidneys was studied, it shows no significance from earlier studies. Accessory renal arteries were noted in 24% of cases with equal incidence on both sides. Within accessory, hilar type was most common (14%), followed by inferior polar in 12% and superior polar in 2% of specimens. Accessories in 28.5% specimens gave rise to gonadal arteries and 7.3% specimens to inferior phrenic artery.

Conclusion: The results suggest that there are a large number of anatomical variations in the vascularisation of the kidney. The most common incidence is the occurrence of accessory renal arteries. It was rarely found that superior and inferior polar arteries originated from the renal artery. The renal artery diameter is a factor which should be considered as predicting the presence of additional renal arteries.  



Renal transplantations, Renal arteries, Morphometric data, Kidney

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