Bacterial profile of blood stream infections and their antibiograms

Meenakshi Kante, Muni Lakshmi P, Sreenivasulu Reddy P


Background: Blood culture provides essential information for the evaluation of a variety of diseases like endocarditis, pneumonia, and pyrexia of unknown origin particularly, in patients with suspected sepsis. Septicaemia is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality along with perinatal hypoxia. Objectives: To study the bacterial flora of blood stream infections in adults & pediatric patients including neonates. To study the risk factors and duration of incubation for obtaining positive cultures. To study their antibiotic resistant pattern and compare results with those of other investigators in this field.

Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the department of microbiology, Narayana medical college and hospital, Nellore over a period of six months, from March 2014 to September 2014. During the six months period, 200 samples received from various departments were processed and relevant findings were noted.

Results: Out of 200 blood samples growth was obtained in 34 samples (17%). Among them Gram positive bacteria were 11 (5.5%). Gram negative bacilli were 23 (11.6%). Among the gram positive bacteria maximum resistance was seen with methicillin and imipenum. No resistance was seen with vancomycin and erythromycin. Most of gram negative bacilli were multidrug resistant. Maximum resistance was seen with piperacillin, amikacin, ceftizoxime and amoxyclav.  

Conclusion: Early diagnosis & appropriate treatment of bacterial infections can make difference between life & death. It would reduce mortality from septicaemia, reduce time & improve patient management.



Bacteria, Blood cultures, Sepsis, Antibiotics

Full Text:



Arora Usha, Pushpa Devi. Bacterial profile of blood stream infections and antibiotic resistance pattern of isolates. JK Sci. 2007;9(4):186-90.

Bhatta Dharm Raj, Abhishek Gaur, H. S. Supram. Bacteriological profile of blood stream infections among febrile patients attending a tertiary care centre of Western Nepal. Asian J Med Sci. 2013;4(3):92-8.

Weinstein MP, Towns ML, Quartey SM, Mirrett S, Reimer LG, Parmigiani G, et al. The clinical significance of positive blood cultures in the 1990s: a prospective comprehensive evaluation of the microbiology, epidemiology, and outcome of bacteremia and fungemia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;24(4):584-602.

Beebe, James L, Elmer W. Koneman. Recovery of uncommon bacteria from blood: association with neoplastic disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1995;8(3):336-56.

Klein JO, Dashefsky B, Norton CR, Mayer J. Selection of antimicrobial agents for treatment of neonatal sepsis. Rev Infect Dis. 1983;5 (Suppl 1):S55-64.

Lawn, Joy E, Simon Cousens, Jelka Zupan. 4 million neonatal deaths: when? Where? Why? Lancet. 2005;365(9462):891-900.

Elbayoumi Yasser A, Abdelraouf A. Elmanama. Epidemiology of septicemia at neonatal intensive care units in Gaza city hospitals. In: Elbayoumi, Yasser A, Abdelraouf A. Elmanama, eds. Biological Sciences Master Program. Gaza: Islamic University; 2011: 1-123.

Phillips SE, Bradley JS. Bacteremia detected by lysis direct plating in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28(1):1-4.

Murty DS, Gyaneshwari M. Blood cultures in pediatric patients: a study of clinical impact. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2007;25(3):220.

Mane AK, Nagdeo NV, Thombare VR. Study of neonatal septicemia in a tertiary care hospital in rural Nagpur. J Recent Adv Appl Sci. 2010;25:19-24.

Leclerc H, Mossel DA, Edberg SC, Struijk CB. Advances in the bacteriology of the coliform group: their suitability as markers of microbial water safety. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2001;55(1):201-34.

Babic Maja, Andrea M. Hujer, Robert A. Bonomo. What’s new in antibiotic resistance? Focus on beta-lactamases. Drug Resistance Updates. 2006;9(3):142-56.

Lodise TP Jr, Patel N, Kwa A, Graves J, Furuno JP, Graffunder E, et al. Predictors of 30-day mortality among patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infections: impact of delayed appropriate antibiotic selection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51(10):3510-5.

Sipsas Nikolaos V, Gerald P. Bodey, Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis. Perspectives for the management of febrile neutropenic patients with cancer in the 21st century. Cancer. 2005;103(6):1103-13.

Owens Jr, Robert C. Antimicrobial stewardship: concepts and strategies in the 21st century. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;61(1):110-28.

Tamma Pranita D, Sara E. Cosgrove. Antimicrobial stewardship. Infect Disease Clin North Am. 2011;25(1):245-60.

Grimwood Keith, Scott C. Bell, Anne B. Chang. Antimicrobial treatment of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther. 2014;12(10):1277-96.

French GL. Clinical impact and relevance of antibiotic resistance. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2005;57(10):1514-27.

Bhattacharya S. Blood culture in India: a proposal for a national programme for early detection of sepsis. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2005;23(4):220.

Khanal B, Harish BN, Sethuraman KR, Srinivasan S. Infective endocarditis: report of prospective study in an Indian hospital. Trop Doct. 2002;32:83-5.

Murthy DS. Blood cultures in pediatric patients: a study of clinical impact. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2007;25(3):220-4.

Arora U, Jaitwani J. Acinetobacter spp.: an emerging pathogen in neonatal septicaemia in Amritsar. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2003;21:66-8.

Roy I, Jain A, Kumar M, Agarwal SK. Bacteriology of neonatal septicaemia in a tertiary care hospital of Northern India. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2002;20:156-9.

Doern GV, Brueggemann AB, Dunne WM, Jenkins SG, Halsted DC McLaughlin JC. Four-day incubation period for blood culture bottles processed with the Difco ESP blood culture system. Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:1290-2.

Weems J Jr. The many faces of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Postgrad Med. 2002;3:33-41.

Kumar Surinder, Rizvi Meher, Vidhani Shalini, Sharma VK. Changing face of septicemia and increasing drug resistance in blood isolates. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2004;47:441-6.