Pattern of diabetic foot - presentation and complications in rural Indian population

Chandrashekhar Chintamanrao Mahakalkar, Meghali N. Kaple, Jyothi Janardhan, Niket Jain, Parag Jaipuria, Dhirendra D. Wagh

Abstract


Background: Foot ulcer is one of the most common and deadest complications of diabetes mellitus. This is also a frequent cause of hospitalization and disability. Most of the patients with diabetic foot ulcers living in developing countries present to healthcare facilities fairly late with advanced foot ulcers because of poor economic status, inadequate knowledge of self-care, sociocultural reasons and poor and inadequate diabetes healthcare.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the department of Surgery, JNMC Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha of DMIMS (DU) with the aim to evaluate the pattern of distribution of foot ulcers in diabetic foot patients and related complications. We enrolled 30 diabetic patients in the study, of these 21 (70%) were males and 9 (30%) were females with male to female ratio 2.33.  

Results: The mean age of presentation was 52.93 ± 14.10 and the mean duration of diabetes was 8.20 ± 10.06. The maximum numbers of lesion was present in the region of second to fifth metatarsal (53.33%), followed by heel (26.66%) and great toe (10%). Maximum patients 9 (30%) had grade II lesions as per Wagner’s classification and 12 (40%) had II B as per University of Texas diabetic wound classification. Associated deformity was present in 36.66%, insensitivity to the 5.07 S-W monofilaments in 56.66%, impaired vibration in 43.33%, and abnor­mal Achilles tendon reflex in 40%. Ankle–brachial index <0.8 was present in 33.33%. Only 13.33% patients were using customized footwear whereas 46.66% were walking barefoot, the difference was statistically significant P = 0.0027.

Conclusion: The health education to promote Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior and Practice (KABP) is essential to prevent diabetes associated foot complications.

 


Keywords


Diabetic foot, Complications, Pattern, Wagner’s classification, ABI

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