Anti-ulcer activity of arachidonic acid (PUFA) oils in different induced ulcer animal models

K. Arumugasamy, S. Kannan, P. A. Vora, Manoj G. Tyagi

Abstract


Background: Ulcers of the lower part of the oesophagus, the stomach and the first part of the duodenum are also known as peptic ulcers. Peptic ulcers can affect people of any age, but they are more common as you get older. There is a focus on research for better tolerated and efficacious anti-ulcer agents.

Methods: Effect of anti-ulcer activity of fish oil and Arasco oil was evaluated in different animal models of ulcers i.e. ethanol induced, water immersion and pyloric ligation techniques. The Superoxide dismutase activity in gastric tissue was also ascertained in two groups of animals. The animals received either fish oil (40 µl, PO), Arasco oil (40 µl, PO), omeprazole (20 mg/kg PO) or ranitidine (30 mg/kg PO). The gastro-protection was calculated based on ulcer index, pH and gastric juice volume.

Results: The results of this study suggest that poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contained in fish oil and Arasco oil have moderate anti-ulcer activity although probably lesser in potency than the available anti-ulcer drugs like omeprazole and ranitidine.

Conclusion: These  results  have  shown  that  PUFA containing oils  provided  moderate  gastrointestinal  protection  in  all  the induced ulcer models employed. Thus it can be concluded that PUFA containing oils like the Fish oil and Arasco oil have anti-ulcer properties and the mechanisms involved in these actions need to be investigated.

 


Keywords


PUFA, Ethanol, Ulcer, Omeprazole, Rats, Gastric juice, Pyloric

Full Text:

PDF

References


Malfertheiner P, Chan FK, McColl KE. Peptic ulcer disease. Lancet. 2009;374(9699):1449-61.

Goyal RK. Gastrointestinal diseases. In: Goyal RK, eds. Elements of Pharmacology. 17th ed. New Delhi, India: B.S. Shah Prakashan; 2008.

Rao CV, Sairam K Goyal RK. Experimental evaluation of Bocopa monnieraon rat gastric ulceration and secretion. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000;44(4):435-41.

Yuan YH, Padol IT, Hunt RH. Peptic ulcer disease today. Nature Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;3(2):80-9.

Yeomans ND, Hawkey CH, Brailsford W, Næsdal J. Gastroduodenal toxicity of low- dose acetylsalicylic acid: a comparison with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25(11):2785-93.

Yuan Y and Hunt RH. Treatment of non NSAID and non H. pylori gastroduodenal ulcers and hypersecretory states. In: Wolfe MM, Gary LD, Francis AF, Ralph AG, Juan RM, Steer ML, eds. Therapy of Digestive Disorders. 2nd ed. Edinburgh, UK: W.B. Saunders; 2006: 315-336.

Soberg T, Hofstad B, Sandvik L, Johansen M, Lygren I. Risk factors for peptic ulcer bleeding. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2010;130(11):1135-9.

Lin KJ, Garcıa Rodrıguez LA, Fernandez-Dıaz S. Systematic review of peptic ulcer disease incidence rates: do studies without validation provide reliable estimates? Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2011;20(7):718-28.

Sonnenberg A, Everhart JE. The prevalence of self-reported peptic ulcer in the United States. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(2)200-5.

Tack J, Talley NJ. Gastroduodenal disorders. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105(4)757-63.

vanLeerdam ME, Vreeburg EM, Rauws EA, Geraedts AA, Tijssen JG, Reitsma JB, et al. Acute upper GI bleeding: did anything change? Time trend analysis of incidence and outcome of acute upper GI bleeding between 1993/1994 and 2000. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98(7):1494-9.

Lau JY, Sung JJ, Hill C, Henderson C, Howden CW, Metz DC. Systematic review of the epidemiology of complicated peptic ulcer: incidence, recurrence, risk factors and mortality. Digestion. 2011;84(2):102-13.

Ramakrishnan K, Salinas RC. Peptic ulcer disease. Am Fam Physician. 2007;(76)7:1005-12.

Huang JQ, Hunt RH. Pharmacological and pharmacodynamic essentials of H2-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors for the practising physician. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2001;15(3);355-70.

Sachs G. Proton pump inhibitors and acid-related diseases. Pharmacotherapy. 1997;17(1):22-37.

Ismail IF, Golbabapour S, Hassandarvish P, Hajrezaie M, Abdul Majid N, Kadir FA, et al. Gastroprotective activity of Polygonum chinenseaqueous leaf extract on ethanol-induced hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats. Evidence-Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:404012.

Carr ZA, Kleinerman RA, Stovall M, Weinstock RM, Griem ML, Land CE. Malignant neoplasms after radiation therapy for peptic ulcer. Radiat Res. 2002;157(6):668-77.

Li JWH, Vederas JC. Drug discovery and natural products: end of an era or an endless frontier? Science. 2009;325(5937):161-5.

Grant HW, Palmer KR, Kellt RW, Wilson NH, Nisiewicz JJ. Dietary linoleic acid, gastric acid and prostaglandin secretion. Gastroenterology. 1988;94:955-9.

Hollander D, Tarnawski A. Dietary essential fatty acids and the decline in peptic ulcer disease - a hypothesis. Gut. 1986;27:239-42.

Arain SQ, Talpur FN, Channa NA, Khan R. Clinical evaluation and serum lipid profile between individuals with acute hepatitis C. Int J Biochem Res. 2015;6(1):300-8.

Das UN, Reddy GN, Rao PN, Radha V. Essential fatty acids and peptic ulcer disease. Gut. 1987;28:914-5.

Piper DW, Stiel DD. Pathogeneis of chronic peptic ulcer, current thinking and clinical implications. Med Prog. 1986;2:7-10.

Gopalkrishna B, Akki SK, Desai PK, Halli M, Sawadi RV. Anti-ulcer activity of Datura albaness leaf extract. Indian Drugs. 2007;44(11):860-3.

Misra HP, Fridovich I. The role of superoxide anion in the autooxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for SOD. J Biol Chem. 1972;247:3170-5.

Ajaikumar KB, Asheef MBH and Paddiala J. The inhibition of gastric mucosal injury by Punica granatum L. methanolic extract. J Ethanopharmacol. 2005;96:171-6.

Patidar DK. Anti-ulcer activity of aqueous extract of Murray Koenigh in albino rats. Int J Pharm Biosci. 2011;2(1):524-9.

Nagaya H, Satoh H, Maki Y. Possible mechanism for the inhibition of acid formation by the proton pump inhibitor AG-1749 in isolated canine parietal cells. J Pharmacol Exper Ther. 1990;252:1289-95.

Brunton LL. Pharmacological treatment of heart failure. In: Hardman JG, Gilman AG, Limbird LE, eds. Goodman and Gilman: the Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1996: 901-915.

Perlin DS. Ion pumps as targets for therapeutic intervention: old and new paradigms. Electro J Biotechnol. 1998;1:55-64.

Earnest DL. NSAID-induced gastric injury: its pathogenesis and management. Semin Arth Rheum. 1990;19:6-10.

Kitagawa H, Fujiwara M, Osumi, Y. Effect of water immersion stress on gastric secretion and mucosal blood flow in rats. Gastroenterology. 1979;77:298-302.

Koo MWL, Ogle CW, Cho CH. Effect of verapamil, carbenoxolone and N-acetylcysteine on gastric wall mucus and ulceration in stressed rats. Pharmacology. 1986;32:326-34.

Scheiman JM. NSAIDs, Eicosanoids, and the Gastroenteric Tract. In: Dubois, RN, Giardiello, FM, eds. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1996;25:279-89.

Weber PC. Clinical studies on the effect of n-3 fatty acids on cells and eicosanoids in cardiovascular system. J Intern Med.1989;225:61-8.

Ekçi B, Karabicak I, Atukeren P, Altinli E, Tomaoglu K, Tasci I. The effect of omega-3 fatty acid and ascorbic acid on healing of ischemic colon anastomoses. Annali Italiani di Chirurgia. 2011;82(6):475-9.

Qiu YD, Wang S, Yang Y, and Yan XP. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote liver regeneration after 90% hepatectomy in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(25):3288-95.

Hunter B, Donalt MC, Gibney M J. The effects of acute and chronic administration of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on ethanol-induced gastric haemorrhage in rats. Br J Nutr. 1992;67:501-7.

Schepp W, Steffen B, Ruoff HJ, Schusdziarra V, Classen M. Modulation of rat gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 release by dietary linoleic acid: effect on gastric acid secretion and stress-induced mucosal damage. Gastroenterology. 1988;95:18-25.