Speciation of clinically significant coagulase negative staphylococci and their antibiotic resistant patterns in a tertiary care hospital
Keywords:Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Microbiota, Immunocompromised, Antibiotic susceptibility, Disk diffusion method, Ornithine decarboxylase
Background: Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CONS) are normal human microbiota and sometimes cause infections, often associated with implanted devices, such as joint prosthesis, shunts and intravascular catheters, especially in very young, old and immunocompromised patients. These infections are difficult to treat because of the risk factors and the multiple drug resistant nature of the organisms. The study is undertaken to speculate CONS isolates from various clinical samples and to determine antibiotic susceptibility pattern of CONS by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method.
Methods: A total of 134 clinically significant CONS isolated from pus, urine, blood, fluid, sputum, ear swabs, endotracheal tube, ophthalmic, semen and nail samples. These isolates initially identified by colony morphology, Gram staining, catalase test, slide coagulase test, tube coagulase test and mannitol fermentation.Speciation of CONS was done by novobiocin resistance test, urease activity, ornithine decarboxylase and aerobic acid production from mannose.
Results: S. epidermidis is the most frequent isolate 62 (46.3%) followed by S. saprophyticus 38(28.4%), S. haemolyticus 27(20.1%), S. lugdunensis 3(2.2%). S. warneri 3(2.2%), S. cohinii 1(0.7%). Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates showed maximum resistance to penicillin 128 (95.5%) and ampicillin118 (88%) followed by erythromycin 96 (71.6%), cefoxitin 89 (66.4%), gentamicin 33(24.6%), piperacillin & tazobactam 31(23.8%), amoxicillin & clavulanic acid 25 (18.7%), linezolid 23 (17.2%), levofloxacin 9 (6.7%), vancomycin & teicoplanin 2 (1.5%), tigecycline 1 (0.7%).
Conclusion: S. epidermidis is the more common isolate identified and CONS are often resistant to multiple antibiotics (Penicillin, ampicillin) & glycopeptides have been considered as the drugs of choice for the management of infections caused by these organisms.
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