Published: 2017-01-10

Relationship between blood pressure and BMI: a cross sectional study among government employees of Gujarat state, India

Rajendra Gadhavi, Dipak M. Solanki, Kiran Rami, Samir Bhagora, Nilesh Thakor


Background: For diseases like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes mellitus and other chronic diseases body mass index (BMI) is identified as a positive and independent risk factor associated with both morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study is to establish a relationship between blood pressure and BMI among government employees of Gujarat state.

Methods:This cross-sectional study was carried out among government employees of new Sachivalaya, Gandhinagar of Gujarat during April to July 2004. Total 775 employees were selected using stratified, systematic random and simple random sampling designs. Written consent of all the subjects was obtained. A structured pre-tested proforma was used for collecting information and the results of the measurements. Anthropometric measurements like height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference were taken and BMI was calculated. To test the significance of the difference among the statistical parameters in different subsets of population F-test was applied.

Results: Out of 775 subjects participated in the study 676 (87.2 percent) were males and 99 (12.8 percent) were females. The highest proportion of the study subjects were in the 41-50 age groups. The mean age of the study population was 46.72 years. The mean Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) of the total study population was 125.9 mm of Hg. The mean Diastolic Blood Pressure (SBP) of the total study population was 81.5 mm of Hg. The mean SBP and DBP shows an increasing trend with increasing age & were found statistically significant. [For SBP, F = 15.36, p=0.00, For DBP, F=4.9; p=0.007]. The difference among mean SBP and DBP of the three categories of BMI were found statistically significant in male population, female population and total study population (For SBP, F =14.48, p =0.00001) (For DBP, F=20.14, p=0.00000).

Conclusion: There is significant correlation between BMI and DBP or SBP among government employees of Gujarat state situated in western part of India, thus basic measurement of weight and height to determine the BMI as a routine assessment during clinic visitation with appropriate lifestyle modification would help in controlling hypertension as well as reduce its prevalence.



Hypertension, BMI, Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, Obesity

Full Text:



Larimaore JW. A study of blood pressure in relation to types of bodily habitus. Arch Intern Med. 1923;32:567-72.

Stamler R, Stamler J, Riedinger WF, et al. Weight and blood pressure: findings in hypertension screening of 1 million Americans. JAMA. 1978;240: 1607-10.

MacMahon SW, Blacket RB, Macdonald GJ, et al. Obesity, alcohol consumption and blood pressure in Australian men and women: The National Heart Foundation of Australia Risk Factor Prevalence Study. J Hypertens. 1984;2:85-91.

Dyer AR, Elliott P, Shipley M for the INTERSALT Cooperative Research Group. Body mass index versus height and weight in relation to blood pressure: findings for the 10,079 persons in the INTERSALT Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;131: 589-96.

Neser WB, Thomas J, Semenya K, et al. Obesity and hypertension in a longitudinal study of black physicians: The Meharry Cohort Study. J Chronic Dis. 1986;39:105-13.

Schotte DE, Stunkard AJ. The effects of weight reduction on blood pressure in 302 obese patients. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:1701.

Hypertension Prevention Trial Research Group. The hypertension prevention trial: three-year effects of dietary changes on blood pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:153-62.

The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. The effects of nonpharmacologic interventions on blood pressure of persons with high normal levels: results of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, Phase I. JAMA. 1992;267:1213-20.

Keys A, Fidanza F, Karvonen MJ, et al. Indices of relative weight and obesity. J Chron Dis. 1972;25: 329-43.

Rocchini AP, Key J, Bondie D, Chico R, Moorehead C, Katch V, Martin M. The effect of weight loss on the sensitivity of blood pressure to sodium on obese adolescents. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:580–5.

Cooper RS, Van Horn L, Liu K, Trevisan M, Nanas S, Stamler J. A randomized trial on the effect of decreased dietary sodium intake on blood pressure in adolescents. J Hypertens. 1984;2:361–6.

Forrester T, Cooper R, Bennet F, McFarlane-Anderson N, Puras A, Rotimi C, Durazo R, Tewksbury, Ward R. Angiotensinogen and blood pressure among blacks: Findings from a community survey in Jamaica. J Hypertens. 1996;14:315–21.

Rotimi CN, Cooper RS, Ogunbiyi O, Morrison L, Ladipo M, Tewksbury D, Ward R. Hypertension, serum angiotensinogen, and molecular variants of the angiotensinogen gene among Nigerians. Circulation. 1997;95:2348–50.

Singh RB, Rastogi SS, Rastogi V, Niaz MA, Madhu SV, Chen M et al. Blood pressure trends, plasma insulin levels and risk factors in rural and urban elderly populations of north India. Coron Artery Dis. 1997;8:463–8.

Rosmarakis ES, Vergidis PI, Soteriades ES, Paraschakis K, Papastamataki PA, Falagas ME. Estimates of global production in cardiovascular disease research. Int J Cardiol. 2005;100:443–9.

Astagneau P, Lang T, Delarocque E, Jeannee E, Salem G. Arterial hypertension in urban Africa: an epidemiological study on a representative sample of Dakar inhabitants in Senegal. J Hypertens. 1992;10:1095–101.

Edwards R, Unwin N, Mugusi F, Whiting D, Rashid S, Kissima J et al. Hypertension prevalence and care in an urban and rural area of Tanzania. J Hypertens. 2000;18:145–52.

He J, Klag MJ, Whelton PK, Chen J-Y, Quian M-C, He G-Q. Body mass and blood pressure in a lean population in Southwestern China. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139:380-9.

International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN). Body mass index and cardiovascular disease risk factors in seven Asian and five Latin American centers: data from INCLEN. Obese Res. 1996;4:221-8.

Singh RB, Rastogi SS, Rastogi V, Niaz MA, Madhu SV, Chen M, et al. Blood pressure trends, plasma insulin levels and risk factors in rural and urban elderly populations of north India. Coron Artery Dis. 1997;8:463-8.

Deshmukh PR, Gupta SS, Dongre AR, Bharambe MS, Maliye C, Kaur, Garg BS. Relationship of anthropometric indicators with blood pressure levels in rural Wardha. Indian J Med Res. 2006;123:657-64