Dyselectrolytemia in hyperglycaemic crisis patients with uncontrolled non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
Keywords:Diabetes mellitus, Electrolytes, Hyperglycaemia, Random blood glucose
Background: Diabetes is a group of disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels. Disturbances in serum electrolytes sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl‑) is found in diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate the disturbances in concentrations of serum electrolytes in hyperglycaemic crisis, uncontrolled non – insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients: early detection and treatment of such abnormalities, leading to better quality of life of patients.
Methods: Data was collected prospectively over a period of 1 year and analyzed retrospectively. Of the 131 subjects included in the study, two groups were formed; 60 hyperglycaemic diabetes mellitus patients and 71 healthy volunteer as controls. Biochemical analysis for Na+, K+, Cl- was performed by ISE method using Easy – lyte automatic electrolyte analyzer. The random glucose levels were estimated by direct Hexokinase enzymatic method using Cobas Interga 400. Unpaired t-test was done to find out the difference between the two paired groups and Pearson's correlation was calculated to know the correlations between electrolytes and random glucose levels.
Results: In uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, increase in serum Na+ and Cl- levels were observed to be highly significant (p<0.001, respectively) while that of K+ showed significant (p<0.05) alterations
Conclusions: The study demonstrated significant association of Na+, K+ and Cl- with hyperglycaemia in patients with hyperglycaemic crisis in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. So, electrolytes should be measured during the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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