Assessing the awareness and practice of Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs) among nursing staff of Civil Hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat, India


  • Ankit M. Sheth Community Medicine Department, P. D. U. Govt. Medical College, Rajkot, Gujarat
  • Darshan S. Jani Critical Care Unit, Wockhardt hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat
  • Matib M. Rangoonwala Community Medicine Department, P. D. U. Govt. Medical College, Rajkot, Gujarat
  • Amiruddin M. Kadri Community Medicine Department, P. D. U. Govt. Medical College, Rajkot, Gujarat



Hospital acquired infections, Nosocomial, Staff nurse, Universal precautions, Hand washing, Awareness


Background:With advances in health care system, threat to Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs) still remains. HAIs continue to affect hospitalized patients and results in morbidity, mortality and additional costs. Health care workers, especially nurses can play critical role in prevention and control of HAIs. The purpose was to study their awareness regarding HAIs and practice towards prevention and control measures.

Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted in Civil Hospital, Rajkot from October 2014 to December 2014. Out of total 184 staff nurses, 92 (50% of the total following convenient sampling) were selected. A list of all staff nurse was made alphabetically and every alternate nurse was selected for interview. Of the 92 staff nurses approached, 83 consented and gave complete response. Interview was conducted using a pretested semi structured questionnaire and analysis was done using Excel 2007.

Results:80 (93.02%) participants had heard about HAIs. More than half (60.4%) of the participants acknowledged that urinary and respiratory tract infections were the two most common HAIs. 52 (60.4%) of the participants acknowledged that direct skin to skin contact and improper handling of bio medical waste were the two most common modes of transmission of HAIs. 47 (56.6%) practiced hand washing before and after surgical procedures. 30 (36.1%) participants had ‘good’ knowledge regarding HAIs.

Conclusions:The present study showed that level of awareness and practice regarding HAIs among nursing staff was average. Considering the important role of nurses in HAIs, there is a need to develop a system of continuous education to increase nurses’ awareness and hence adopt appropriate health behaviours and increase adherence to precautions.



Benenson AS. Control of communicable diseases manual. 16th ed. Washington: American Public Health Association; 1995.

Edmond MB, Wenzel RP. Nosocomial Infection. In: Principles and Practice of Infectious diseases. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R editors, 16th ed. Volume V, New York: Churchill Livingstone: 2005; 2362-3380.

Defez C, Fabbro-Peray P, Cazaban M, Boudemaghe T, Sotto A, Daurès JP. Additional direct medical costs of nosocomial infections: an estimation from a cohort of patients in a French university hospital. J Hosp Infect. 2008;68:130-136.

Everett JE, Wahoff DC, Statz CL, et al. Characterization and impact of wound infection after pancreas transplantation. Arch Surg. 1994;129:1310-17.

Chen YC, Chiang LC. Effectiveness of hand-washing teaching programs for families of children in paediatric intensive care units. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2007;16(6):1173-9.

Safdar N, Abad C. Educational interventions for prevention of healthcare associated infection: A systematic review. Critical Care Medicine. 2008;36(3):933-40.

Michael J, Jonathan R, David H, Robert P. Critical care Medicine. 1999;27(5):887-92.

Ganguly P, Yunus M, Khan A, Malik AA. G R Soc Health. 1995;115(4):244-6.

Orrett FA. West Indian Medical Journal. 2002;51(1):21-4.

Harbarth S, Sax H, Gastmeier P: The preventable proportion of nosocomial infections: an overview of published reports. J Hosp Infect. 2003, 54:258-266.

Pittet D: Compliance with hand disinfection and its impact on hospital acquired infections. J Hosp Infect. 2001;48(A):S40-46.

World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: First global safety challenge: clean care is safe care. Geneva: WHO; 2009 [], Accessed June 18, 2010.

Horn WA, Larson EL, McGinley KJ, Leyden JJ. Microbial flora on the hands of health care personnel: Differences in composition and antibacterial resistance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1988;9:189-93.

Albert RK, Condie F. Hand-washing patterns in medical intensive-care units. N Engl J Med. 1981;24:1465-6.

Kristiansen MS, Weinberg NM, Anker-Moller E. Healthcare workers' risk of contact with body fluids in a hospital: The effect of complying with the universal precautions policy. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1992;13:719-24.

Meengs MR, Giles BK, Chisholm CD, Cordell WH, Nelson DR. Handwashing frequency in an emergency department. J Emerg Nurs. 1994;20:183-8.

Census 2011 [Online] [cited 2015 March 10. Available from:

Sessa et al.: An Investigation of Nurses’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Disinfection Procedures in Italy. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2011 11:148.

Kampf G, Kramer A. Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:863-93.

Whitby M, McLaws ML, Ross MW. Why healthcare workers don't wash their hands: A behavioural explanation. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27:484-92.

Alvaran MS, Butz A, Larson E. Opinions, knowledge, and self-reported practices related to infection control among nursing personnel in long-term care settings. Am J Infect Control. 1994;22:367-70.




How to Cite

Sheth, A. M., Jani, D. S., Rangoonwala, M. M., & Kadri, A. M. (2017). Assessing the awareness and practice of Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs) among nursing staff of Civil Hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat, India. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 3(8), 1844–1850.



Original Research Articles