Positive feedback: a tool for quality education in field of medicine


  • Nisha Mandhane Department of Surgery, DY Patil School of Medicine, Nerul, Navi Mumbai
  • Sharique Ansari Department of Surgery, DY Patil School of Medicine, Nerul, Navi Mumbai
  • Tanveer Parvez Shaikh Department of Surgery, DY Patil School of Medicine, Nerul, Navi Mumbai
  • Sandesh Deolekar Department of Surgery, DY Patil School of Medicine, Nerul, Navi Mumbai




Feedback, Medical education, Constructive feedback, postgraduate


Background: Feedback in medical education is an integral and important constituent of teaching as it encourages and enhances the learners' knowledge, skills and professional performance. Feedback has to be delivered in an appropriate setting; it should focus on the performance and not on the individual; should be clear and specific; delivered in non-judgmental language; should emphasize positive aspects; be descriptive rather than evaluative; and should suggest measures for improvement.

Methods:20 Post Graduate Student from surgery department was selected for the study.

Results:Constructive feedback is defined as the act of giving information to a trainee through the description of his/her performance in the observed situation. It emphasizes the strengths of the session and areas which require improvement. The processes of giving and receiving feedback are skills that can be acquired only with practice with improvement in Pg student’s skill and knowledge.

Conclusion: To integrate the concept of feedback in medical education, training of the trainers pertaining to techniques of adult learning and how to give feedback to trainees are foremost requirements. Interactive feedback is indispensable in bringing about professional development and overall improvement in doctors.



Rubak S, Ipsen M, Sorensen J, et al. Feedback in postgraduate medical training. Ugeskrift for laeger. 2008;170(44):3528-30.

Schartel S. Giving feedback - an integral part of education. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology. (2012;26(1):77-87.

Thomas JD, Arnold RM. Giving feedback. Journal of Palliative Medicine. 2011;14(2):233-9.

Burr S, Brodier E. Integrating feedback into medical education. British Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2010;71(11):646-9.

Nicol D, MacFarlane-Dick D. Rethinking formative assessment in HE: A theoretical model

and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education. 2006;31(2):199-218.

Sargent J, Mann K, Sinclair D, et al. Challenges in multisource feedback: Intended and unintended outcomes. Medical Education. 2007;41(6):583-91.

Van den Berg I, Admiraal W, Pilot A. Peer assessment in university teaching: Evaluating seven course designs. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education. 2006;31(1):19-36.

Hattie J, Timperley H. The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research. 2007;77(1):81-112.

Adcroft A. The mythology of feedback. Higher Education Research and Development. 2011;30(4):405-19.

Branch WT, Paranjape A. Feedback and reflection: teaching methods for clinical settings. Academic Medicine. 2002;77(12 Suppl 1):1185-8.

Bhattarai M. ABCDEFG IS - the principle of constructive feedback. Journal of the Nepal Medical Association. 2007;46(167):151-6.

Hewson MG, Little ML. Giving Feedback in Medical Education. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 1998;13(2):111-6.

Alves de Lima A. Constructive feedback. A strategy to enhance learning. Medicina (B Aires). 2008;68(1):88-92.

McIlwrick J, Nair B, Montgomery G. How am I doing?: many problems but few solutions related to feedback delivery in undergraduate psychiatry education. Academic Psychiatry. 2006;30(2):130-5.

Snydman L, Chandler D, Rencic J, et al. Peer observation and feedback of resident teaching. The Clinical Teacher. 2013;10(1):9-14.

Kogan JR, Conforti LN, Bernabeo EC, et al. Faculty staff perceptions of feedback to residents after direct observation of clinical skills. Medical Education. 2012;46(2):201-15.

Carr S. The Foundation Programme assessment tools: An opportunity to enhance feedback to trainees? Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2006;82(971):576-9.

Irby DM. What clinical teachers in medicine need to know. Academic Medicine. 1994;69(5):333-42.

Milan FB, Parish SJ, Reichgott MJ. A model for educational feedback based on clinical communication skills strategies: Beyond the 'feedback sandwich.' Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2006;18(1):42-7.

Van Hell EA, Kuks JB, Raat AN, et al. Instructiveness of feedback during clerkships: Influence of supervisor, observation and student initiative. Medical Teacher. 2009;31(1):45-50.

Greenberg LW. Medical students' perceptions of feedback in a busy ambulatory setting: a descriptive study using a clinical encounter card. Southern Medical Journal. 2004;97(12):1174-8.

Ashford SJ, Blatt R, VandeWalle D. Reflections on the looking glass: a review of research on feedback-seeking behavior in organizations. Journal of Management. 2003;29(6):773-99.

Bok HG, Teunissen PW, Spruijt A, et al. Clarifying students' feedback seeking behavior in clinical clerkships. Medical Education. 2013;47(3):282-91.

Renn RW, Fedor DB. Development and field test of a feedback seeking, self-efficacy, and goal setting mode of work performance. Journal of Management. 2001;27(5):563-83.

Hamid Y, Mahmood S. Understanding constructive feedback: a commitment between teachers and students for academic and professional development. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. 2010;60(3):224-7.

Kusurkar R. Motivation in medical students: a PhD thesis report. Perspectives on Medical Education. 2012;1(3):155-7.

Kianmehr N, Mofidi M, Yazdanpanah R, et al. Medical student and patient perspectives on bedside teaching. Saudi Medical Journal. 2010;31(5):565-8.

Salam A, Siraj HH, Mohamad N, et al. Bedside teaching in undergraduate medical education: issues, strategies, and new models for better preparation of new generation doctors. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2011;36(1):1-6.

Peccoralo L, Karani R, Coplit L, et al. Pocket card and dedicated feedback session to improve feedback to ward residents: A randomized trial. Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2012;7(1):35-40.

Gordon M, Bose-Haider B. A novel system of prescribing feedback to reduce errors: A pilot study. The International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine. 2012;24(4):207-14.

O'Horo JC, Omballi M, Tran TK, et al. Effect of audit and feedback on improving handovers: a nonrandomized comparative study. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2012;4(1):42-6.

Al-Haqwi AI, Al-Wahbi AM, Abdulghani HM, et al. Barriers to feedback in undergraduate medical education. Male students' perspective in Central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal. 2012;33(5):557-61.

Woodward-Kron R, Stevens M, Flynn E. The medical educator, the discourse analyst, and the phonetician: a collaborative feedback methodology for clinical communication. Academic Medicine. 2011;86(5):565-70.

Raszka WV, Maloney CG, Hanson JL. Getting off to a good start: discussing goals and expectations with medical students. Pediatrics. 2010;126(2):193-5.

Hanson JL, Bannister SL, Clark A, et al. Oh, what you can see: the role of observation in medical student education. Pediatrics. 2010;126(5):843-5.

Broquet KE, Punwani M. Helping international medical graduates engage in effective feedback. Academic Psychiatry. 2012;36(4):282-7.

Richmond M, Canavan C, Holtman MC, et al. Feasibility of implementing a standardized multisource feedback program in the graduate medical education environment. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2011;3(4):511-6.




How to Cite

Mandhane, N., Ansari, S., Shaikh, T. P., & Deolekar, S. (2017). Positive feedback: a tool for quality education in field of medicine. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 3(8), 1868–1873. https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20150293



Original Research Articles