Prospective study of bone marrow in haematological disorders


  • Bhagya Lakshmi Atla Department of Pathology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, A.P.
  • Venkatalakshmi Anem Department of Pathology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, A.P.
  • Anuradha Dasari Department of Pathology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, A.P.



Bone marrow aspiration, Megaloblastic anemia, Pancytopenia, Trephine biopsy


Background: Bone marrow examination is useful in the diagnosis of both hematological and non-hematological disorders. The two most important techniques used for the diagnosis of hematological disorders are bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy which are complementary to each other. The present study is to evaluate the findings of bone marrow aspiration & trephine biopsy and their cytological and histological patterns in various hematological disorders. The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical profile, spectrum, cytological and histological pattern of various hematological disorders reported in bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy respectively.

Methods: It was a cross-sectional study design with 105 patients who underwent bone marrow examination for evaluation of hematological disorders in the Department of pathology, Andhra Medical College during the period of 2012 to 2014.

Results: Among 105 cases studied, age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 yrs with mean age of 32.4 yrs and male predominance (1.5:1). Most of the patients presented with fever, shortness of breath, Easy fatigability and generalized weakness. The commonest physical findings were pallor followed by splenomegaly & hepatomegaly and in hematological parameters predominantly pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration was diagnostic in 53(50%) cases and trephine biopsy was diagnostic in 52(50%) cases. Anemias (50%) and leukemias (16%) are most common hematological disorders. Among the anemias, megaloblastic anemia is the most common (40%) cause of hematological non-malignancies. Among leukemias, acute myeloid leukemias are common cause of hematological malignancies.

Conclusion: The present study showed the usefulness of bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy in evaluation of the bone marrow in routine haematological disorders and also for understanding disease progression, for diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation. These are also helpful in planning further investigation and management.



Brown DC, Gatter KC. The bone marrow trephine biopsy: a review of normal histology. Histopath. 1993;22:411-22.

Sola CM, Rimsza LM, Christensen RD. A bone marrow biopsy technique suitable for use in neonates. Br J Hematol. 1999;107:458-60.

Brynes RK, Mckenna RW, Sundbeerg RD. Bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy: an approach to a thorough study. Am J Clin Pathol. 1978;70:753-9.

Jha A, Sayami G, Adhikari RC, Panta AD, Jha R. Bone Marrow Examination in Cases of Pancytopenia. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2008;47(169):12-7.

Khodke K, Marwah S, Buxi G, Yadav RB, Chaturvedi NK. Bone marrow examination in cases of pancytopenia. J Indian Acad Clin Med. 2001;2:55–9.

Kumar R, Kalra SP, Kumar H, Anand AC, Madan H. Pancytopenia: a six year study. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001;49:1078–81.

Santra G, Das BK. A cross-sectional study of the clinical profile and aetiological spectrum of pancytopenia in a tertiary care centre. Singapore Med J. 2010;51:806-12.

Tilak V, Jain R. Pancytopenia: a clinico-hematologic analysis of 77 cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 1999;42:399–404.

Nigam RK, Malik R, Kothari S, Gour D, Shrivastava A, Balani S, et al. “Spectrum of Diseases Diagnosed by Bone Marrow Examination in Central India”. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2014;3(2):326-37.

Chandra S, Chandra H. Comparison of bone marrow aspirate cytology, touch imprint cytology and trephine biopsy for bone marrow evaluation Hematol Rep. 2011;3(3):e22.

Parajuli S, Tuladhar A. Correlation of bone marrow aspiration and biopsy findings in diagnosing hematological disorders – a study of 89 cases. Journal of Pathology of Nepal. 2014;4:534-8.

Khan TA, Khan IA, Mahmood K. Diagnostic role of bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy in haematological practice. J Postgrad Med Inst. 2014;28(2):217-21.

Gayathri BN, Rao KS. Pancytopenia: a clinico hematological study. J Lab Physicians. 2011;3:15–20.

Boon TH, Walton JN. Aplastic anaemia. Quart J Med. 1951;20:75-92.




How to Cite

Atla, B. L., Anem, V., & Dasari, A. (2017). Prospective study of bone marrow in haematological disorders. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 3(8), 1917–1921.



Original Research Articles