Sero-epidemiology of toxoplasmosis and associated risk factors among antenatal women in Ranchi, Jharkhand, India


  • Rana Pratap Department of Microbiology,Narayan Medical College & Hospital, Sasaram, Bihar, India
  • Ahmad Nadeem Aslami Department of Community Medicine, Narayan Medical College & Hospital, Sasaram, Bihar, India
  • Manjushri . Department of Microbiology,Narayan Medical College & Hospital, Sasaram, Bihar, India
  • Narayan Prasad Sahu Department of Microbiology,Narayan Medical College & Hospital, Sasaram, Bihar, India



Bad obstetric history, India, Latex agglutination test, Seroprevalence, Toxoplasma gondii


Background: Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in antenatal women has remained a contentious issue in Indian subcontinent. Bad obstetric history (BOH) is specific to women of childbearing age and can be caused by infection with Toxoplama gondii. In Jharkhand, scarce data exist for the roles of toxoplasmosis in the aetiology of adverse pregnancy outcome. Aim: To study the sero-epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis and associated risk factors among antenatal women attending antenatal clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

Methods: A case-control study was conducted on antenatal women attending antenatal clinic from the June 2010 to May 2011. The study group comprised 102 antenatal women of with BOH while the control group comprised 102 multiparous, age-matched antenatal women without BOH. Latex Slide agglutination test for antibodies to T.gondii was utilized. The research was approved by institutional ethical committee. Descriptive and inferential statistics was applied.

Results: The overall seroprevalence of T.gondii among antenatal women was 15.19%, with significantly more in women with BOH (24.50%) as compared to women without BOH (5.88%). The seroprevalence in women with BOH gradually increased with advancing age: 8.33% in age less than 20 years to 50% in women older than 30 years. The seroprevalence increased steadily with number of BOH: 9.67% in women with one BOH to 37.50% in women with three or more BOH. Risk factors like Illiteracy, rural residence, owning a cat and non-veg dietary habit showed significant association.

Conclusions: The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis is high among antenatal women with BOH. Routine serological test is recommended for all pregnant women with BOH.


Bodaghi B, Touitou V, Fardeau C, Paris L, LeHoang P. Toxoplasmosis: new challenges for an old disease. Eye. 2012;26:241-4.

Montoya JG, Liesenfeld O. Toxoplasmosis. Lancet. 2004;363:1965-76.

Zargar AH, Masoodi SR, Laway BA, Sofi MA, Wani AI. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in women with repeated abortions in Kashmir. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998;52:135-6.

Alvarados-Esquivel C, Estrada-Martinez S, Liesenfeld O. Toxoplasma gondii infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables: a case control seroprevalence study. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:235.

Jones JL, Kruszon MD, Meadey JB. Toxoplasmosis gondii infection in the USA; seroprevalence and risk factors. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154:357-65.

Nissapatom V, Azmi Noor MA, Cho SM, Fong MY, Init I, Rohela M, et al. Toxoplasmosis; Prevalence and risk factors. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;23:618-24.

Fu CJ, Chuang TW, Lin HS, Wu CH, Liu YC, Langinlur MK, et al. Toxoplasma gondii infection: seroprevalence and associated risk factors among primary school children in the capital area of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2014;67:405-10.

Liao CW, Lee YL, Sukati H, D’lamini P, Huang YC, Chiu CJ, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among children in Swaziland, South Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2009;103:731-6.

Balfour AH, Fleck DG, Hughes HP, Sharp D. Comparative study of three tests (dye test, indirect haemagglutination test, latex agglutination test) for the detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in human sera. J Clin Pathol. 1982;35:228-32.

Vaughan JP, Morrow RH, editors. Manual of epidemiology for district health management. Geneva: World Health Organization. 1989;175-8.

Dawoud HA, Ageely HM, El Shake AH, Heiba AA. Latex agglutination and indirect immuno-flourescence tests in the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii in Saudi Arabia. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2009;39:1-9.

Sukthana Y, Chintana T, Supatanapong W, Siripan C, Lekkla A, Cheabchalrad R. Predictive value of latex agglutination test in serological screening for Toxoplasma gondii. Southeast Asian J Trop Med. Public Health. 2001;32:314-8.

Woldemichael T, Fontanet AL, Sahlu T, Gilis H, Messele T, Wit TF, et al. Evaluation of the Eiken latex agglutination test for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection among factory workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1998;92:401-3.

Kishore J, Aggrawal J, Aggrawal S, Ayyagari A. Sera analysis of C. Trachomatis and S-TORCH agents in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2003;46:684-7.

Singh S, Pandit AJ. Incidence and prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Indian pregnant women: a prospective study. Am J Reprod Immunol 2004;52:276-83.

Akoijam BS, Shashikant, Singh S, Kapoor SK. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection among primigravida women attending antenatal clinic at a secondary level hospital in North India. J Indian Med Assos. 2002;100:591-602.

Yasodhara P, Ramalakshmi BA, Naidu AN, Raman L. Prevalence of specific IgM due to toxoplasma, rubella, CMV and C. trachomatis infections during pregnancy. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2001;19:52-6.

Singh S, Nautiyal BL. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Kumaon region of Uttar Pradesh. Indian J Med Res. 1991;93:47-9.

Singh S. Prevalence of TORCH infections in Indian pregnant women. Indian J Med Microbiol 2002;20:57-8.

Malarvizhi A, Viswanathan T, Lavanya V, Aarul Sheeba, Malar S and Moorthy K. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women. Journal of public health and epidemiology. 2012;4:170-7.

Senthamarai S, Sivasankari S, Apurba SS, Sandhya BK, Kumudavathi MS, Anitha C, et al. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women with bad obstetrics history in a tertiary care hospital, kanchipuram-a pilot study. Disease 2013;3:29-32.

Ebadi P, Solhjoo K, Bagheri, Eftekhar F. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among the women with recurrent spontaneous abortion in comparison with the uncomplicated delivery. Journal of Jahrom, University of Medical Sciences. 2011;9:32-6.

Chintapalli S, Padmaja IJ. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in antenatal women with bad obstetric history. Tropical Parasitology 2013;3:62.

Turbadkar D, Mathur M, Rele M: Seroprevalence of TORCH infection in bad obstetric history. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2003;21:108-10.

Nimri L, Pelloux H, Elkhatib H. Detection of T.gondii DNA nad specific antibodies in high-risk pregnant women. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:831-5.

Ocak S, Zeteroglu S, Ozer C, Dolapcioglu K, Gungoren A. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, rubella and cytomegalovirus among pregnant women in southern Turkey. Scand J Infect Dis. 2007;39:231-4.

Qublan HS, Jumaian N, Abu-Salem A Hamadelil Y, Mashabeh M, Abdel-Ghani F. Toxoplasmosis and habitual abortion. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;22:296-8.

Cook GC, Zumla A. Mansons Tropical diseases. 21st ed. Saunders. 2003:136670.

Cook AJ, Gilbert RE, Buffolano W, Zufferey J, Petersen E, Jenum PA, et al. Sources of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case-control study. European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis. BMJ. 2000;321:142-7.

Kieffer F, Wallon M. Congenital toxoplasmosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;112:1099-101.

Wallon M, Peyron F, Cornu C, Vinault S, Abrahamowicz M, Kopp CB, et al. Congenital toxoplasma infection: monthly prenatal screening decreases transmission rate and improves clinical outcome at age 3 years. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;56:1223-31.




How to Cite

Pratap, R., Aslami, A. N., ., M., & Sahu, N. P. (2016). Sero-epidemiology of toxoplasmosis and associated risk factors among antenatal women in Ranchi, Jharkhand, India. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 4(11), 4742–4746.



Original Research Articles