DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20150793

Urinary tract infection in type 2 diabetic patients: risk factors and antimicrobial pattern

Mansoor C. Abdulla, Feroz P. Jenner, Jemshad Alungal

Abstract


Background: Diabetes increases the risk of infection and the commonest amongst them are the ones involving the genitourinary tract. Diabetic patients are found to have an increase in the risk of developing urinary tract infection (UTI) by 60%. The study aimed to determine the causative pathogens and their antimicrobial pattern, identify risk factors associated in type 2 diabetic subjects having UTI.

Methods: This was an observational study conducted in the medicine unit of a tertiary care hospital over a period of 8 months. A total of 619 (M:F 289:330) type 2 diabetic subjects were studied. History, clinical examinations, and the duration of diabetes were recorded in all patients at admission. Diabetes was diagnosed based on the WHO criteria. An immunoturbidimetric method was used to estimate glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C%). Diagnosis of UTI was made from midstream urine samples of patients if the urine cultures has >103 to >105 colony forming units (CFUs)/mL of a pathogen.

Results: Among the 619 diabetic patients 220 patients had pus cells in urine but 72 patients had insignificant colony count. 90 (60.8%) patients were more than 60 years old, 48 (32.4%) were in the age group of 40-60 years and 10 (6.7%) were less than 40 years old. Among the 148 patients studied 52 (35.1%) were males and 96 (64.9%) were females. 116 (78.4%) had diabetes for more than 15 years and the rest had a duration lesser than 15 years. The HbA1C of patients with and without UTI were 10.2 ± 1.6 and 8.4 ± 1.3 respectively. Gram negative bacilli were isolated from 129 (87.2%) patients which included E. coli in 75 (50.7%), Klebsiella in 30 (20.3%), Pseudomonas species in 12 (8.1%) and Citrobacter in 12 (8.1%). Gram positive cocci were responsible for UTI in 15(10.1%) of subjects including Enterococcus in 13 (8.9%) and Staphylococcus in 2 (1.3%). Gram negative bacilli including E. coli, the Klebsiella species, pseudomonas and Citrobacter had good response to piperacillin-tazobactum, cefoperazone sulbactum, imipenam and amikacin. Gram positive cocci (Enterococcus and Staphylococcus) responsible for UTI showed good susceptibility to vancomycin (81 and 94% respectively) but a high resistance to ciprofloxacin and tetracyclines (68 and 57% respectively).

Conclusions: Female gender, age and duration of diabetes were found to have increased risk factors for developing UTI in diabetes. Escherichia coli was the commonest organism causing UTI in diabetes which showed good response to piperacillin/tazobactum, cefoperazone-sulbactum, imipenam and amikacin.

 


Keywords


Urinary tract infection, Type 2 Diabetes, Risk factors, Antimicrobial pattern, Glycosylated hemoglobin

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