DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20150808

A retrospective study of paradigm and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India

Arulmurugan C., Sarfaraz Ahmed, Mohammad Gani

Abstract


Background: Acute poisoning is a medical emergency. It is important to know the nature, outcome and severity of acute poisoning cases in order to make appropriate prevention and   treatment. This study is conducted to assess the paradigm and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital in Tamilnadu.

Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Tamilnadu. The study included 169 cases and data regarding age, sex, time elapsed after intake, name of the poisons, chemical type; duration of hospital stay; outcome and severity were collected in the structured proforma.

Results: Incidence was high among males (60.36%) compared to females (39.64%). Most of the cases of acute poisoning were in the age group 10 to 30 years (60.95%) followed by 30 to 50 years age group (30.77%). A majority of poisoning cases (27.2%) were due to organophosphorus (OPC) insecticide. Total mortality was found to be 5.32%. Mortality rate due to Paraquat, Abrus Pretorius seeds was significantly high compared with OPC because there is no specific antidote. Time lapse had a very significant role in the mortality in cases of poisoning.

Conclusions: Poisoning is common with young males. The mortality is high, in cases of self-poisoning with parquet and abrus seeds. Despite the highest consumption rate, no mortality was observed with organophosphorus because of early medical intervention and specific antidote. Early medical care in a tertiary care hospital will help to reduce significant mortality in India.

 


Keywords


Acute Poisoning, Paraquat, Organophosphorus, Tertiary care hospital

Full Text:

PDF

References


Singh S, Sharma BK, Wahi PL, Anand BS, Chugh KS. Spectrum of acute poisoning in adults. J Assoc Physicians India. 1984;32(7):561-3.

David G, Michael E, Michael RP, Fleming K. The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: Systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:357.

Das RK. Epidemiology of Insecticide poisoning at A.I.I.M.S Emergency Services and role of its detection by gas liquid chromatography in diagnosis. Medico update. 2007;7:49–60.

Unnikrishnan B, Singh B, Rajeev A. Trends of acute poisoning in South Karnataka. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2005;3:149–54.

Dash SK, Aluri SR, Mohanty MK, Patnaik KK, Mohanty S. Sociodemographic profile of poisoning cases. JIAFM. 2005; 27:133–8.

Srivastava A, Peshin SS, Kaleekal T, Gupta SK. An epidemiological study of poisoning cases reported to the National Poisons Information Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005;24(6):279-85.

Thomas M, Anandan S, Kuruvilla PJ, Singh PR, David S. Profile of hospital admissions following acute poisoning-experiences from a major teaching hospital in south India. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev. 2000;19:313–7.

Basu A. Study of Organophosphorus poisoning over 3 years. J Assoc Physicians India. 1988;36:21.

Rajasuriya R, Awang R, Hashim SB, Rahmat HR. Profile of poisoning admissions in Malaysia. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007;26:73–81.

Singh DP, Acharya RP. Pattern of poisoning cases at Bir hospital. J Institute Med. 2006;28:3–6.

Agarval SB. Study of 190 cases of organophosphorus poisoning. J Assoc Physicians India. 1989;31:66.

Adlakha. Profile of organophosphorus poisoning in adults. J Assoc Physicians India. 1988;35:665–6.