DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20151174

Microorganisms and viruses causing diarrhea in infants and primary school children and their relation with age and sex in Zakho city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Wijdan M.S. Mero, Ahmed Y. Jameel, Kaveen S. Kh. Amidy

Abstract


Background: Diarrheal diseases in children are a major public health concern in developing countries. Diarrheal infection spreads through contaminated food or drinking-water, or from person-to-person as a result of poor hygiene. This study was conducted to investigate the incidence of different microorganisms associated with diarrhea in infants and primary school children and their relation to sex and age in Zakho city, Kurdistan region, Iraq.

Methods: During the period from September 2013 to May 2014, 600 diarrheic samples were collected from both sexes and different ages (<2 to 12) years; these samples were subjected to various diagnostic tests in the Microbiology Laboratories/Biology Department/Faculty of Science/University of Zakho.  

Results: Out of 600/479 were positive for one or more types of microorganisms including 265 (55.32%) males and 214 (44.67%) females. Among the positive 479 samples, the highest rate of prevalence was with both bacteria and parasites (57.33and 57.00%, respectively), followed by viruses (10.33%) and only1.16% with fungi. The most prevalent enteric microorganisms were found to be E. coli (62.5%), followed by E. histolytica (46.19%), G. lamblia (42.10%) and the lowest H. nana (0.87%). The mixed prevalence were documented in 179 (37.36) cases, with the most common correlation between bacteria and parasites in 76 (42.45 %) cases. All ages showed high rates of prevalence with both bacteria and parasites, the highest bacterial cases being among ages >4-8 years (65.38 and 64.07%), while parasites were among >6-10 years (64.67 and 60.11%). High viral prevalence were recorded among ages <2 to 6 years with the peak among <2 years (40.54%).  

Conclusions: From this study we conclude that about 57% of diarrheal cases were associated with bacteria, parasites, and viruses with E. coli, E. histolytica, G. lamblia and rotavirus as leading microorganisms. The mixed prevalence with two or more microorganisms was documented in 179 (37.36%) out of 479 positive samples and the rate of microbial prevalence was found to be gender and age dependent.

 


Keywords


Microbial diarrhea, Bacteria, Parasites, Viruses, Infants and children, Sex, Age

Full Text:

PDF

References


Wobudeya E, Hanifa B, Karamagi CK, Kalyango JN, Mutebi E, Wamani H. Breastfeeding and the risk of rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized infant's in Uganda: a matched case control study. BMC Pediatr. 2011;11:1-7.

World Health Organization. World health statistics. The integrated global action plan for the prevention and control of pneumonia and diarrhea (GAPPD). Geneva: WHO; 2010.

Kosek M, Bern C, Guerrant RL. The magnitude of the global burden of diarrheal disease from studies. J Health Popul Nutr. 2003;81:197-204.

Shimelis D. Effect of Zinc supplementation in treatment of acute diarrhea among 2-59 months children treated in Black Lion Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2008;22:(2):186-90.

Jill W, Wenjing T, Jenny L, Forsberg B. Diarrheal diseases, in low- and middle-income countries. Open Infect Dis J. 2010;4(123):113-24.

Usaid SH. Integrating sanitation and water supply programs. Annual report in Africa. Assessment by two cohort studies. Lancet. 2010;370:1622-8.

Barreto M, Genser B, Strina A, Gloria T, Marlucia O, Rita R, et al. Effect of city-wide sanitation program on reduction in rate of childhood diarrhea in northeast Brazil: assessment by two cohort studies. 2007;370(9599):1622-28.

Al-Najar SA, Makhlis FA, Odisho SM, Tahir RM. Intestinal parasites and rotavirus diarrhea. J Fac Med Baghdad. 2000;42 (2):210-4.

World Health Organization. Combating waterborne disease at the house-hold. International network to promote household water treatment and safe storage. Geneva: WHO; 2007.

Faust EC, Antoni JSD, Odom V, Miller MJ, Peres C, Sawitz W, et al. A critical study of clinical laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of protozoan cysts and Helminth eggs in feces. Am J Trop Med. 1938;18:169-83.

John DT, Petri W. Medical parasitology. In: John DT, Petri W, eds. A Book. 9th ed. USA: Elsevier Inc; 2006.

Horton J. Albendazole: a review of anthelmintic efficacy and safety in humans. Parasitology. 2000;121:113-4.

Georgiev V. Chemotherapy of enterobiasis (oxyuriasis). Expert Open Pharmacother. 2001;2:267- 9.

Cukor G, Perron DM, Hudson R, Blacklow NR. Detection of rotavirus in human stools by using monoclonal antibody. J Clini Microbiol. 1984;15:888-92.

Sokel RR, Rohlf FJ. Introduction to biostatistics.

In: Sokel RR, Rohlf FJ, eds. A Book. 2nd ed. New York: Dover; 2009.

Al-Bayatti KK, Al-Taei LH. Local pattern of acute enteric bacterial infection in school students. Al- Mustansiriya J Sci. 2010;21(4):23-30.

Badry AH. Pathogenic microorganisms associated with diarrhea in infants and children in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region/Iraq. M.Sc. Thesis. Iraq: Faculty of Science, University of Zakho; 2013.

Ali CI, Mahmood AR, Jafar NA, Khorsheed S. Prevalence of enteropathogenic diarrhea in Children up to 2 years in Kirkuk Province. Tikrit Med J. 2009;15(2):124-31.

Ahmad KD, Baker KI. Isolation, Identification and partial characterization of plasmid DNA of different bacterial species isolated from clinical specimens of patients suffering from diarrhea. Raf J Sci. 2007;18(12):6-12.

Hammadi KA. Study for intestinal parasites among children in AL-Mahmoudyia area/Baghdad province, Al-Kufa. J Biol. 2012;4(1):26-30.

Hamad NR, Ramzy IA. Epidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica among children in Erbil Province, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. J Res Biol. 2012;2(1):57-62.

Mahmud SA. Protozoal etiology of acute and persistent diarrhea in children in Al-Sowera city in Iraq. Wasit Altaqani. 2006;22(2):57-64.

Hasan SF. Intestinal Parasites in children under five years with diarrhea in Kerbala, Iraq. J Kerbala Univ. 2010;8(1):415-20.

Rasti S, Arbabi M, Hooshyar H. High prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Enterobius vermicularis among elderly and mentally retarded residence in Golabchi center, Kashan, Iran. Jundishapur J Microb. 2012;5(4):585-9.

Elsheik AA, Azab WA, Al-Qurashi AM, Mansour SMG. Rotavirus and adenovirus in human and animals in Southwest of Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):489-93.

Al-Dahmoshi HOM, Hasanain KI, Shareef SK, Al-Khafaji Raheem TO, Al-Mammori. Rapid identification of rotavirus, adenovirus and norovirus using immunochromatography test among infantile diarrhea, Iraq. Int J Sci Nature. 2013;4(4):598-602.

Jadali F, Karimi A, Fallah F, Zahraei M, Adabian S. A survey on rotavirus associated diarrhea in 5 main cities of Iran. Arch Pediatr Infect Dis. 2012;1(1):23-26.

Alrifai SB, Alsaadi A, Mahmood YA, Ali AA, Al-Kaisi LA. Prevalence and etiology of nosocomial diarrhea in children <5 years in Tikrit teaching hospital. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15(5):1111-8.

Ibrahim BM. Isolation of some microbial agents that cause acute gastroenteritis in children. J Fac Med Baghdad. 2012;54(3):218-22.

Hadi ZS. A Study of prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in Shatrah district. J Coll Educ. 2010;1(5):28-39.

Brown J, Cairncross S, Ensink JHJ. Water, sanitation, hygiene and enteric infections in children. Arch Dis Child. 2013;10(1136):1-6.

Vilchez S, Reyes D, Paniagua M, Bucardo F, Möllby R, Weintraub A. Prevalence of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli in children from Leo´n, Nicaragua. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:630-7.

Zaman NA, Al-Tae AA, Saadoon IH. Rotavirus, Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and parasitic etiology of pediatric diarrhea in Kirkuk city. Tikrit: Second Scientific Conference Science College - Tikrit University; 2012.

Turhanoglu M, Gulsun S, Onur A, Bilman F. The frequency of Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EIEC and serotypes) Shigella, rotavirus and parasite agents among children with acute gastroenteritis in Southeast Anatolia, Turkey. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2012;6(23):5020-4.

Rabatti AA, Rasheed NE. Etiology of bloody diarrhea among children admitted to maternity and Children’s Hospital-Erbil. Al-Kindy Coll Med J. 2008;4(2):19-24.

Jasim TM, Al-Mugdadi SFH. The incidence of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia associated with diarrhea among children in lbn Al-Balady Hospital in Baghdad. Iraqi J Community Med. 2011;1:17-9.

Arif A, Naheed R. Socio-economic determinants of diarrhea morbidity in Pakistan. Acad Res Int. 2012;2(1):398-432.

Ahmed JNH. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among children in various localities of Duhok province and their relation with some blood parameters. M.Sc. Thesis. Iraq: College of Education University of Duhok; 2010.

Al-Bayatti KK, Al-Taei LH. Local pattern of acute enteric bacterial infection in school students. Al-Mustansiriya J Sci. 2010;21(4):23-30.

Alaa H, Shah SA, Khan AR. Prevalence of diarrhea and its associated factors in children under five years of age in Baghdad, Iraq. Open J Prev Med. 2014;4(1):17-21.

Sule EI, Aliyu AM, Abdulaziz BM. Isolation of diarrhoeagenic bacteria in children attending some selected hospitals within Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna state Nigeria. Continent Appl Sci. 2011;6(1):1-6.