DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20151436

Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in an urban school of a developing country

Durgesh V. Yewatkar, Dwarika Prasad Pande, Laxmipriya A. Bangde, Tanushree Joshi

Abstract


Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuro-psychiatric disorder in children. Hence, the prevalence of ADHD and its types in school children as a community based survey in an urban Indian region was assessed in this study.

Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in an urban English medium school. Children studying in sixth to tenth standard were recruited for the study. DSM-IV based ADHD questionnaire was put forth to parents and teachers. Demographic details, information about their family and school environment were collected from students. Their performance in last year final examination in school was assessed from school records. Statistical analysis was carried out with either Fisher’s exact probability test or Chi-square test.

Results: A total of 32/500 (6.4%) children have been diagnosed to have ADHD from the response from parents. Of the 32 ADHD children, 25 (78.1%) were boys and 7 (21.9%) were girls. A majority [22 (68.8%)] were of inattentive type, 2 (6.3%) were hyperactive and 8 (25%) had combined type of ADHD. An unfavourable family environment has been found to be significantly associated with ADHD (P < 0.001). A statistically significant difference (P<0.0001) in school performance was noted in children with ADHD. ADHD children were found to have unfavourable peer relationship more likely than non-ADHD children both in school [25/32 (78.1%)] and at home [16/32 (50%)].

Conclusions: We found prevalence of ADHD to be 6.4% in an urban English medium school necessitating an early identification through mass screening programmes and directing appropriate interventions.

 


Keywords


ADHD, Community school, Inattention

Full Text:

PDF

References


Szymanski M, Zolotor A. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder: Management. Am Fam Physician. 2001;64:1355-62.

American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association. 1994;80-85.

Polanczyk G, de Lima M, Horta B, Biederman J, Rohde L. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: A systematic review and meta regression analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:942-8.

Ford T, Goodman R, Meltzer H. The British child and adolescent mental health survey 1999: the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;42:1203–11.

Al Hamed J, Taha A, Sabra A, Bella H. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: is it a health problem among male primary school children. Bahrain Medical Bulletin. 2008;30:1-9.

Suvarna B, Kamath A. Prevalence of attention deficit disorder among preschool age children. Nepal Med Coll J. 2009;11:1-4.

Venkatesh C, Ravikumar T, Andal A, Virudhagirinathan B. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: clinical profile and co-morbidity. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012;34:34-8.

Venkata J, Panicker A. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in primary school children. Indian J Psychiatry. 2013;55:338-42.

Wolraich M, Hannah J, Baumgaertel A, Feurer I. Examination of DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a county-wide sample. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1998;19:162-8.

Agarwal A. Social classification: The need to update in the present scenario. Indian J Community Med. 2008;33:50-1.

Malhi P, Singhi P. Spectrum of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in children among referrals to psychology services. Indian Pediatrics. 2000:37;1256-60.

Bhatia M, Choudhary S, Sidana A. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among psychiatric outpatients. Indian Pediatrics. 1999;36:583-7.

Polanczyk G, Willcutt E, Salum G, Kieling C, Rohde L. ADHD prevalence estimates across three decades: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43:434-42.

Biederman J, Mick E, Faraone S, Braaten E, Doyle A, Spencer T. Influence of gender on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children referred to a psychiatric clinic. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:36‑42.

Baumgaertel A, Wolraish M, Dietrich M. Comparison of diagnostic criteria for attention deficit disorders in a German elementary school sample. J AM Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995;34:629-38.

Gaub M, Carlson C. Behavioral characteristics of DSM-IV ADHD subtypes in a school based population. J Abnormal Child Psychol. 1997;25:103-11.

Kashala E, Tylleskar T, Elgen I, Kayembe K, Sommerfelt K. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among school children in Kinshasa Democratic Republic of Congo. African Health Sciences. 2005;5:172-89.

Biederman J, Mick E, Faraone S. Age-dependent decline of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Impact of remission definition and symptom type. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:816-8.

Palfrey J, Levine M, Walker D, Sullivan M. The emergence of attention deficits in early childhood: A prospective study. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1985;6:339-48.

PiresTde O, da Silva C, de Assis S. Association between family environment and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children--mothers' and teachers' views. BMC Psychiatry. 2013 27;13:215.

Crea T, Chan K, Barth R. Family environment and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adopted children: associations with family cohesion and adaptability. Child Care Health Dev. 2014;40:853-62.