Twin load of hypertension and diabetes amongst adults: community based study from Jammu and Kashmir, India
Keywords:Hypertension, Diabetes, Community based cross sectional study, Jammu & Kashmir
Background: Data regarding the occurrence of hypertension and diabetes in the community are crucial for optimum allocation and utilization of health resources. Objective was to assess the efficacy of such field based exercise in detection of new undiagnosed cases and calculation of the consequent prevalence.
Methods: A cross sectional community based study was carried out to find out prevalence of hypertension and diabetes amongst adults (35-64 years) in Chatergam, Budgam (Jammu and Kashmir) during Oct 2011 to Feb 2012 on a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured in 2077 adults and random blood sugar (RBS) was measured in 1732 subjects to detect diabetes. Data was analyzed to find out the distribution of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) and the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes along with 95 percent confidence intervals.
Results: Mean SBP and DBP of 2077 subjects were 130.7 ± 40.3 and 83.1 ± 11.4 mm of mercury respectively. Values were the highest for both SBP and DBP amongst women of urban areas and in the 55 – 64 years of age. Quarter of studied persons (24.4%) had the family history of hypertension or diabetes or both. Based on the criteria of JNC 7, 41.1% subjects (95 % CI 38.9 – 43.2) were found hypertensive including 593 known cases (496 alone & 97 in combinations with diabetes). Prevalence of new cases of hypertension was 17.5 percent; it significantly increased with increasing age and was high amongst males and those residing in urban areas. 4.6% subjects (95% CI 3.6-5.7) were positive for diabetes based on RBS.
Conclusions: Considering high load of twin diseases and their impact on coronary vascular diseases (CVD), study emphasizes the need to implement an integrated population-based cost-effective control program with a focus on primordial and primary prevention.
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