Prevalence and risk factors of nocturnal enuresis among school age children in rural areas

Ashok N. Solanki, Sarzoo G. Desai

Abstract


Background: The word enuresis is derived from a Greek word (enourein) that means “to void urine.” It can occur either during the day or at night (though some restrict the term to bedwetting that occurs at night). Enuresis can be divided into primary and secondary forms. Aim of current study was to find out the prevalence and underlying its risk factors of nocturnal enuresis in age groups 5 to 12 years in the rural areas of the district.

Methods: The study was done during the year 2011-12 among 1258 school children residing in rural areas of Ahmadabad district of Gujarat state by the help of health personnel staff with the cooperation of the teaching staff and all the parents of the children.

Results: There were 869 males and 389 females. We found the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in 11.13% of total subjects. Nocturnal enuresis was more common in males than in females, 91/140 in males and 49/140 in female children.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that nocturnal enuresis is a common problem among school children especially with low income, lower age, family history of enuresis and history of urinary tract infection. Enuresis is a pediatric public health problem and efforts at all levels should be made such as preventive, etiological and curative. The ratio of males to females in this study was 1.86 that is comparable to other data of the same study.

 


Keywords


Nocturnal enuresis, Prevalence, Socioeconomic factors, Genetic predisposition

Full Text:

PDF

References


Nevéus T, von Gontard A, Hoebeke P, et al. The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function in children and adolescents: report from the standardization committee of the international children’s continence society. J Urol 2006;176(1):314-24.

Gümüş B, Vurgun N, Lekili M, Iscan A, Muezzinoglu T, Buyuksu C. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and accompanying factors in children aged 7-11 years in Turkey. Acta Paediatr 1999;88:1369-72.

Spee-van der Wekke J, Hirasing RA, Meulmeester JF, Radder JJ. Childhood nocturnal enuresis in The Netherlands. Urology 1998;51:1022-6.

C. Logan A, Lesperance F. Primary nocturnal enuresis: omega-3 fatty acids may be of therapeutic value. Med Hypotheses 2005;64(6):1188-91.

Sureshkumar P, Jones M, Caldwell PH, Craig JC. Risk factors for nocturnal enuresis in school-age children. J Urol 2009;182:2893-9.

Oge O, Kocak I, Gemalmaz H. Enuresis: Point prevalence and associated factors among Turkish children. J Pediatr 2001;43(1):38-43.

Serel TA, Akhan G, Koyuncuoğlu HR et al. Epidemiology of enuresis in Turkish children. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1997;31:537-9.

Azhir A, Frajzadegan Z, Adibi A, et al. An epidemiological study of enuresis among primary school children in Isfahan, Iran. Saudi Med J 2006;27(10):1572-7.

Chang P, Chen WJ, Tsai WY et al. An epidemiological study of nocturnal enuresis in Taiwanese children. BJU Int 2001;87(7):678-81.

Murat Unalacak, Ayhan Söğüt, Erol Aktunç, Nejat Demircan, Remzi Altin. Enuresis nocturna prevalence and risk factors among school age children in northwest turkey, Eur j gen med 2004;1(3):21-5.

Safarinejad MR. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis, risk factors, associated familial factors and urinary pathology among school children in Iran. J Pediatr Urol 2007;3(6):443-52.

Gur E, Turhan P, Can G et al. Enuresis: prevalence, risk factors and urinary pathology among school children in Istanbul, Turkey. Pediatr Int 2004;46(1):58-63.

Lee SD, Sohn DW, Lee JZ et al. An epidemiological study of enuresis in Korean children. BJU Int 2000;85(7):869-73.

Kalo BB, Bella H. Enuresis: prevalence and associated factors among primary school children in Saudi Arabia. Acta Paediatr 1996;85:1217-22.

Cher TW, Lin GJ, Hsu KH. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and associated familial factors in primary school children in Taiwan. J Urol 2002;168:1142-6.

Unalacak M, Söğüt A, Aktunç E, Demircan N, Altın R. enuresis nocturnal prevalence and risk factors among school age children in northwest turkey. Eur J Gen Med 2004;1(3):21-5.

De Sousa A, Kapoor H, Jagtap J, et al. Prevalence and factors affecting enuresis among primary school children. Indian J Urol 2007;23(4):354-7.

Hazza I, Tarawneh H. Primary nocturnal enuresis among school children in Jordan. Saudi J Kidney Disease Transplant 2002;13:478.

Hanafin S. Sociodemographic factors associated with nocturnal enuresis. Br J Nurs 1998;7:403-8.