Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending medicine out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital in Alappuzha, Kerala, India

Koushiki Mani, Rose Davy C.


Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication affecting the eyes of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus due to long-term hyperglycaemia. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among working aged adults around the world. There are various factors leading to the development of diabetic retinopathy namely duration of diabetes, glycaemic control, age at onset of diabetes, uncontrolled hypertension. This is a hospital based cross-sectional study which aimed to study the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending Medicine out-patient department of Government T. D. Medical College, Alappuzha, Kerala, India. The factors contributing to the development of retinopathy was also studied.

Methods: 200 already diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects were included in the study. Subjects were explained about the study and once the consent was received, data regarding age, gender, age at onset of diabetes, duration of diabetes, history of smoking, alcohol intake, and socio-economic status was documented. Height and weight was measured. Blood pressure was recorded with mercury sphygmomanometer. Then the subjects were evaluated for diabetic retinopathy by fundus examination after dilating the eyes. Findings were noted and subjects were categorized as no retinopathy, nonproliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy using the ETDRS classification.

Results: In present study, out of 200 subjects, 63 subjects (31.5%) were affected with diabetic retinopathy (non-proliferative retinopathy=22.5%, proliferative retinopathy=9%). Prevalence of mild, moderate and severe non-proliferative retinopathy was 7.5% each. Significant association was found between diabetic retinopathy and duration of diabetes.

Conclusions: Therefore, periodic screening of diabetic patients should be carried out for early detection and prevention of loss of vision.


Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic retinopathy, Duration of diabetes

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