Communication and mobilization campaigns for immunization (CMCI): need of time for strengthening Immunization services in India

Samadhan Prakashrao Debaje


After 65 years of independence India’s growth in health sector is remarkable which is result of flexibility in changes in strategies for achieving goal .Still there is not so well organized and recognizable growth in field of routine immunization. There is not much progress in strategies for communication and social mobilization; communication strategies always was major component in changing behavior of community and change in communities vaccine acceptance which help in preventing disease by improving immunization coverage. Many studies did so far indicate barriers for immunization as fear of AEFI, lack of knowledge of immunization, its benefits and information regarding where to get vaccination. These all barriers can be combined under one roof as communication and social mobilization barriers. When India had launched polio eradication program it had faced same difficulties due to cultural and social differences in India. As there were many regions where refusal and acceptance of vaccine with less coverage over booth observed, so India had revised its strategies of communication and social mobilization and implemented house to house activity through strategic approach to families with refusal and improved acceptance of polio vaccine through communication by house to house visits thus targeted intervention for improving communication and social mobilization for polio eradication initiative. India had achieved polio eradication mainly through revising its strategies for communication and mobilization. So there is urgent need for revising communication and mobilization strategies for strengthening immunization services in India. As India had shown its success through targeted intervention in strategies and we can use current polio work force available for strengthening routine immunization. As done in polio campaign we can use the targeted house to house activity strategy for identifying and planning for identified gaps in communication and mobilization for immunization. This Communication and Mobilization Campaign for Immunization (CMCI) can be planned for states with low percentage of full immunization coverage based on health survey as NHFS or AHS.



Communication, Social mobilization, Polio, Immunization, CMCI (communication and mobilization campaign for immunization)

Full Text:



Government of India and UNICEF. Coverage evaluation survey, 2009. In: UNICEF, eds. United Nations International Children's Fund. New Delhi: UNICEF; 2010: 1-8.

Chandrakant Lahariya. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India. Indian J Med Res. 2014 Apr;139(4):491-511.

Waisbord S, Larson H. Why invest in communication for immunization: evidence and lessons learned, 2005. Available at: Accessed 4 July 2014.

India Communication Update. UNICEF communication strategy, 2014. Available at: Assessed 4 July 2014.

Under Secretary (Immunization). Universal immunization program review, 2014. Available at: Accessed 4 July 2014.

Population Council. Designing a behavior change communication strategy to improve family health outcomes in rural Uttar Pradesh, 2014. Available at: Accessed 7 July 2014.

Rafael Obregón, Ketan Chitnis, Chris Morry, Warren Feek, Jeffrey Bates, Michael Galway, et al. Achieving polio eradication: a review of health communication evidence and lessons learned in India and Pakistan. Bull WHO. 2009;87:624-30.

García LDA, Velandia-González M, Trumbo SP, Pedreira MC, Bravo-Alcántara P, Danovaro-Holliday MC. Understanding the main barriers to immunization in Colombia to better tailor communication strategies. BMC Publ Health. 2014 Jun;14(1):669.

El Arifeen S, Christou A, Reichenbach L, Osman FA, Azad K, Islam KS, et al. Community-based approaches and partnerships: innovations in health-service delivery in Bangladesh. Lancet. 2013 Dec;382(9909):2012-26.

Medina-Marino A, Reynolds D, Finley C, Hays S, Jones J, Soyemi K. Communication and mass vaccination strategies after pertussis outbreak in rural Amish communities-Illinois, 2009-2010. J Rural Health. 2013;29(4):413-9.

Weiss WM, Choudhary M, Solomon R. Performance and determinants of routine immunization coverage within the context of intensive polio eradication activities in Uttar Pradesh, India: social mobilization network (SM Net) and core group polio project (CGPP). BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2013 May;13:25.

Ilene Timko Burns, Richard Kent Zimmerman. Immunization barriers and solutions. J Family Pract. 2005;54(1):S58-62.

UNISEF. National fact sheet: coverage evaluation survey, 2009. Available at: Accessed 6 July 2014.

International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International. National family health survey (NFHS-3), 2005-06: In: IIPS, eds. IIPS Survey. Mumbai, India: IIPS; 2008: 1-168.

National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 2005-06. Key indicators for India from NFHS-3, 2008. Available at:

Vashishtha VM. Status of Immunization and Need for Intensification of routine immunization in India. Indian Pediatr. 2012;49:357-61.

Suresh Sharma. Immunization coverage in India In: Suresh Sharma, eds. Working Paper. Series No. E/283/2007. Delhi: Institute of Economic Growth University of Delhi Enclave; 2007: 2-27.