Ossified pterygo-spinous ligament: incidence and clinico-anatomical relevance in the adult human skulls of North India

Yogesh Yadav, Preeti Goswami, Chakradhar Vellalacheruvu

Abstract


Study of skulls has attracted the attention of anatomists since ages and sporadic attempts have been made to study skulls from time-to-time. Talking about the pterygoid processes of sphenoid bone, the irregular posterior border of lateral pterygoid plate usually presents, towards its upper part, a pterygo-spinous process, from which the pterygo-spinous ligament extends backwards and laterally to the spine of sphenoid. This ligament sometimes gets ossified as pterygo-spinous bar and a foramen is then formed named pterygo-spinous foramen, for the passage of muscular branches of mandibular nerve. The present study was undertaken to observe the incidence and status of pterygo-spinous bony bridge and foramen, its variations and clinical relevance in the adult human skulls of North India. For this purpose, 50 skulls were observed, pterygo-spinous bars were found to be present in 7 skulls, out of which completely ossified pterygo-spinous bony bridges were present in 2 skulls while 5 skulls had incompletely ossified pterygo-spinous ligaments. Such variations are of clinical significance for radiologists, neurologists, maxillo-facial & dental surgeons and anaesthetists, too.


Keywords


Skull, Sphenoid, Lateral pterygoid plate, Pterygo-spinous ligament

Full Text:

PDF

References


Henry Gray. Skull. In: Williams PL, Warwick R. eds. Gray's Anatomy. 36th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1995: 354-356, 17377.

Jones FW. Skull. In: Jones FW, eds. Buchanan's Manual of Anatomy. 7th Ed. London: Bailliere, Tindall & Cox.; 1946: 176-185.

Breathnach S. The appendicular skeleton. In: Breathnach S, eds. Frazer's Anatomy of the Human Skeleton, 5th ed. London: J. & A. Churchill Ltd.; 1958: 194-200.

Wood Jones F. The non-metrical morphological characters of the skulls as criteria for racial diagnosis. Part I. J Anat. 1931;65:179-95.

Krompotic NJ, Vinter I, Hat J, Jalsovec D. Mandibular neuralgia due to anatomical variations. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1999;256:205-8.

Kapur E, Dilberovic F, Redzepagic S, Berhamovic E. Variation in the lateral plate of the pterygoid process and the lateral subzygomatic approach to the mandibular nerve. Med Arh. 2000;54:133-7.

Peker T, Karakose M, Anil A, Turgut HB, Gulekon N. The incidence of basal sphenoid bony bridges in dried crania and cadavers: their anthropological and clinical relevance. Euro J Morphol. 2002;40:171-80.

Pinar Y, Arsu G, Aktan Lkiz ZA, Bilge O. The pterygo-spinous and the pterygoalar bridges. Sendrom. 2004;18:66-9.

Von Ludinghausen M, Kageyama I, Miura M, Alkhatib M. Morphological pecularities of the deep infratemporal fossa in advanced age. Surg Radiol Anat. 2006;28:284-92.

Nayak SR, Saralaya V, Prabhu LV, Pai MM, Vadgaonkar R, Dcosta S. The pterygospinous bar and the foramina in Indian skulls: Incidence and phylogenetic significance. Surg Rad Anat. 2007;29:5-7.

Antonopoulou M, Piagou M, Anagnostopoulou S. An anatomical study of the pterygospinous and pterygoalar bars and foramina-their clinical relevance. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2008;36:104-8.

Shinde VS, Mallikarjun M, Patil R. A study on an ossified pterygo-spinous ligament. J Clin Diag Res. 2011;5(5):978-9.

Agarwal B, Gupta M, Kumar H. Ossified ligaments of the skull. J Aria Soc India. 2012;61(1):37-40.

Verma RK, Rani A, Chopra J, Pankaj AK, Kumar N. Civinini bar: incidence in North Indians and its clinical relevance. NJCA. 2013;2(3):128-33.

Tebo HG. The pterygo-spinous bar in panoramic roentgenography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1968;26(5):654-7.

Das S, Paul S. Ossified pterygospinous ligament and its clinical implications. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2007;108(3):141-3.

Peuker ET, Fischer G, Filler TJ. Entrapment of the lingual nerve due to an ossified pterygo-spinous ligament. Clin Anat. 2001;14:282-4.

Erdogmus S, Pinar Y, Celik S. A cause of entrapment of the lingual nerve: ossified pterygo-spinous ligament: a case report. Neuroanat. 2009;8:43-5.