Published: 2016-12-19

Evaluation of immune status in patients with breast cancer in Sokoto, Northwestern, Nigeria

Bashir B. M., Yeldu M. H.


Background: Breast cancer is a major public health problem especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. It is a leading cause of cancer- related deaths worldwide. The present study assessed the immune status of breast cancer patients using CD4+ T cell count, CD8+ T cell count, CD4+/CD8+ ratio and some leucocytes.

Methods: A total of sixty nine (69) subjects that comprised of forty six (46) breast cancer patients attending the Breast Clinic of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto and twenty three (23) age- and gender-marched apparently healthy individuals as controls were included in the study.

Results: The CD4+ T cells (cell/ μl) and CD8+ T cells (cell/ μl) were enumerated using Flow Cytometric method, while CD4/CD8 ratio was calculated from the values obtained from the CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. Even though, there were no significant differences in CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio based on breast cancer stages and therapy types.

Conclusions: It is hereby concluded that, the monocyte counts and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were higher in breast cancer patients and this could be used to differentiate the breast cancer patients from the normal control subjects.


Breast cancer, CD4+T Cells, CD8+T Cells, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, Leucocytes, Sokoto

Full Text:



Agbo PS, Oboirien M, Gana G. Breast cancer incidence in Sokoto, Nigeria. Inter J Dev Sustain. 2013;2:1614-22.

Olufemi AE, Saliu OA, Layiwola AM, Olayide AS. Inter J Med Health Scie. 2013;(2):4.

Blake-Mortimer JS, Sephton SE, Carlson RW, Stities D, Spiegal D. Cytotoxic T. Lymphocyte count and Survival Time in Women with Metastatic Breast Cancer. Breast J. 2004;10(3):195-9.

Ibrahim MS, Kasim S, Almaliky FA, Almersomy HD. CD4/CD8 Ratio, CEA and Ca15-3 as a Battery for Diagnosis for Women Breast Cancer. 2014;6:2.

Jemal A, Bray F, Centre MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global Cancer Statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61:69-90.

Shawkat KM, EL-Gohary SM, Talaat RM. T-lymphocytes Subsets Variation in Breast Cancer Egyptian Patients. Egypt J Microbio. 2015,(24):53-60.

Madu AJ, Ocheni S, Ibegbulam OG, Aguwa EL, Madu KA. Pattern of CD4 T- lymphocyte Values in Cancer Patients on Cytotoxic thereapy. Annual Medical Health Science. 2013;3:498-503.

Okobia MN, Bunker CH, Okonofua FE, Osime U. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Nigerian Women towards Cancer: A Cross- Sectional Studies. World J Surg Onco. 2006;4:11-20.

Oluboyo AO, Meludu SC, Oyenekwe CC, Oluboyo, BO, Chianakwanam GU, Emegakor C. Assessment of immune stability in breast cancer subjects. Eur Scien J. 2014;10:27.

Tsukishiro T, Donnenberg AD, Whitesite TL. Rapid Turnover of the CD8(+) CD28(-) T-cell Subset of Effector Cells in the Circulation of Patients with Head and Neck Cancer. J Canc Immuno-Immunothera. 2003;52:599-607.