Effect of moderate - vigorous intensity physical exercise on female sex hormones in premenopausal university students in Nnewi, Nigeria

Chidiadi M. Atuegbu, Samuel C. Meludu, Chudi E. Dioka, Charles C. Onyenekwe, Jude A. Onuegbu, Christian E. Onah, Onyema A. Onyegbule, Adanma R. Analike, John N. Udo

Abstract


Background: Sedentary lifestyle and diseases associated with it is on the increase in our communities, state and country as a whole. The objective was to determine the effect of exercise on ovarian reserve status of the participants using day 3 FSH, LH and estrogen values and the ovulatory status of the participants using day 21 progesterone values.

Methods: The study was a prospective comparative study. A total of 30 participants were recruited for this work. They were divided into 2 groups: 15 subjects that did exercise for 1 month and 15 controls that didn’t do any form of exercise. Baseline blood samples were collected from the two groups on day 3 and day 21 of the menstrual cycle. The subjects started exercise on day 1 of the next menstrual cycle. Blood samples were collected from the subjects and control on day 3 and day 21 of the next menstrual cycle.

Results:There was significant reduction in weight and therefore BMI of the study group compared to control group and study group baseline after one month of exercise (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the baseline levels of Estrogen, FSH, LH and progesterone between the subjects and control groups before the exercise, but after 1 month of exercise, there were significant differences in the levels of estrogen, FSH, LH and progesterone in these groups (P<0.01). Among the study group there were significant differences in the baseline and final levels of Estrogen, FSH, LH and Progesterone (P<0.01).

Conclusions: The hormonal pattern shows that moderate-vigorous exercise may increase the responsiveness and sensitivity of the follicles to FSH and LH with attendant increase in ovulatory status of young females.

 


Keywords


Exercise, Female sex hormones, Premenopausal

Full Text:

PDF

References


Howley E.T. Type of activity: resistance, aerobic and leisure versu occupational physical activity. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2001; S364 – S369.

Oguma Y, Shinoda-Tagawa T. Physical activity decreases cardiovascular disease risk in women: review and meta-analysis. Am J Prev Med 2004; 26:407 – 418.

McTiernan A. Behavioral risk factors in breast cancer: can risk be modified? Oncologist 2003; 8:326 –334.

Kawano M, Shono N, Yoshimura T, Yamaguchi M, Hirano T, Hisatomi A. Improved cardio-respiration fitness correlates with changes in the number and size of small dense LDL: randomized controlled trial with exercise training and dietary instruction. Intern Med 2009; 48:25-32.

Malatesta D, Werlen C, Bulfaro S, Cheneviere X, Borrani F. Effect of high-intensity interval exercise on lipid oxidation during postexercise recovery. Med . Sci. Sports Exerc 2009;41(2):364-374.

Norman RJ, Noakes M, Wu R, Davies MJ, Moran L, Wang JX. Improving reproductive performance in overweight/obese women with effective weight management. Hum Reprod 2004;10: 267–280.

Van Baak M.A, Borghouts L.B. Relationship with physical activity. Nutr. Rev 2000;58:S16 – S18.

Mariotti A. Sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1994;5:27-53.

Warren M.P, Perlroth NE. The effects of intense exercise on the female reproductive system. Journal of Endocrinology 2001;170: 3–11.

Winterer J, Cutler GB Jr, Loriaux D. Caloric balance, brain to body ratio, and the timing of menarche. Medical Hypotheses 1984;15: 87–91.

Barr SI. Relationship of eating attitudes to anthropometric variables and dietary intakes of female collegiate swimmers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1991; 91: 976–977.

Constantini NW, Warren MP. Menstrual dysfunction in swimmers: a distinct entity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1995; 80:2740–2744.

Rosen LW, McKeag DB, Hough DO, Curley V 1986 Pathogenic weight-control behavior in female athletes. Physician and Sports Medicine 1986;14: 79–86.

Golding LA, Meyers CR, Sinning WE.Y’s way to physical fitness:The complete guide to fitness and instruction, 3rd Ed, Champaign, IL: Human kinetics 1989.

Evelyn M Monninkhof, Petra HM Peeters, Albertine J Schuit. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE) study. BMC Public Health 2007; 7:232.

Maiya, A. G., Sheela, R.K., Kumar, P. Exercise-Induced Weight Reduction and Fertility Outcomes in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome who are Obese and Infertile, Journal of exercise science and physiotherapy 2008;4:30-34.

Lakka T.A, Bouchard C. Physical Activity, Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases, Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 2005;170:137-163.

King NA, Hopkins M, Caudwell P, Stubbs RJ, Blundell JE. Beneficial effects of exercise: shifting the focus from body weight to other markers of health. Br J Sports Med 2009;43:924-927.

Wing RR. Exercise and weight control. In Handbook of Exercise in Diabetes. 2nd ed. 2002.

McTiernan A, Tworoger SS, Ulrich CM. Effect of exercise on serum estrogens in postmenopausal women: A 12-month randomized clinical trial. Cancer Res 2004;64:2923-2928.

Christine M. Friedenreich, Christy G. Woolcott, Anne McTiernan, Rachel Ballard-Barbash, Rollin F. Brant, Frank Z. Stanczyk, Tim Terry, Norman F. Boyd, Martin J. Yaffe, Melinda L. Irwin, Charlotte A. Jones, Yutaka Yasui, Kristin L. Campbell, Margaret L. McNeely, Kristina H. Karvinen, Qinggang Wang, Kerry S. Courneya. Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention Trial: Sex Hormone Changes in a Year-Long Exercise Intervention Among Postmenopausal Women. Journal Of Clinical Oncology 2010;28: 9.

De Souza MJ, Miller BE, Loucks AB. High frequency of luteal phase deficiency and anovulation in recreational women runners: blunted elevation in follicle-stimulating hormone observed during luteal-follicular transition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:4220–4232.

Matthews C, Shu XO, Jin F. Lifetime physical activity and breast cancer risk in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Br J Cancer 2001;84:994–1001.

Neilson HK, Friedenreich CM, Brockton NT. Physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer: Proposed biologic mechanisms and areas for future research. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18:11-27.

Madigan MP, Troisi R, Potischman N. Serum hormone levels in relation to reproductive and lifestyle factors in postmenopausal women. Cancer Causes Control 1998;9:199-207.

Bjørnerem A, Straume B, Midtby M. Endogenous sex hormones in relation to age, sex, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases in a general population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 204;89:6039-6047.

Monninkhof EM, Velthuis MJ, Peeters PH. Effect of exercise on postmenopausal sex hormone levels and role of body fat: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:4492-4499.

Loucks AB. Exercise training in the normal female. In Sports Endocrinology. Eds MP Warren and NW Constantini. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, Inc. 2000;165–180

Bhattacharya Sudhindra Mohan. Mid-luteal phase plasma progesterone levels in spontaneous and clomiphene citrate induced conception cycles. J Obstet Gynecol India 2005;55:4.

Rich-Edwards JW, Spiegelman D, Garland M, Hertzmark E, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Wand H, Manson JE. Physical activity, body mass index, and ovulatory disorder infertility. Epidemiology 2002;13:184–190.

Norman RJ, Noakes M, Wu R, Davies MJ, Moran L, Wang JX. Improving reproductive performance in overweight/obese women with effective weight management. Hum Reprod 2004;10:267-80.