Absence of costal element of the foramen transversarium of atlas vertebrae

Renu Chauhan, Jugesh Khanna

Abstract


Background: Since scanty literature is available on the absence of costal element forming foramen transversarium of atlas vertebra therefore this study was undertaken. Atlas vertebrae were examined to see the presence of foramen transversarium and their boundaries.

Methods: Hundred foramina transversaria of 50 atlas vertebrae were examined grossly.

Results: Foramen transversarium was seen to be present in all the transverse processes of the atlas vertebrae examined. Costal element was found to be missing in seven foramina tranversaria out of 100 foramina seen. It was found to be absent on the right side in three vertebrae and in two it was absent bilaterally.

Conclusions: In case the costal element of the foramen transversarium is absent, the second part of vertebral artery passing through this foramen is liable to be damaged while operating at the level of atlanto-occipital joint the operating surgeon should be aware of such variations so as to avoid injury of second part of vertebral artery and subsequently preventing any kind of neurological involvement. Radiologists must also know about such variations so as to correctly interpret radiological image of the craniovertebral region.


Keywords


Atlas, Costal element, First cervical vertebra, Foramen transversarium

Full Text:

PDF

References


Karau PB, Ogeng’o JA, Hassanali J, Odula P. Anatomy and prevalence of atlas vertebrae bridges in a Kenyan population: An osteological study. Clin Anat 2010;23:649-53.

Doherty BJ, Heggeness MH. Quantitative anatomy of the second cervical vertebra. Spine 1995;20:513-7.

Rongming Xu, Matthew M, Nadaud, Nabil A. Ebraheim, Richard A. Yeasting: Morphology of the second cervical vertebra and the posterior projection of the C2 pedicle axis. Spine 1995;20:259-63.

Doherty BJ, Heggeness MH. The quantitative anatomy of the atlas. Spine 1994;19:2497-500.

Ebraheim NA, Xu R, Ahmad M: The quantitative anatomy of the vertebral artery groove of the atlas and its relation to the posterior atlantoaxial approach. Spine 1998;23:320-3.

Huggare J, Houghton P. Asymmetry in the human skeleton. A study on prehistoric Polynesian and Thais. Eur J Morphol 1995;33:3-14.

Xu R, Naudad MC, Ebraheim NA. Morphology of the second cervical vertebra and the posterior projection of the C2 pedicle axis. Spine 1995;20:259-63.

Wysocki J, Buhrowski M, Reymond J, Kwiastkowski J. Anatomical variants of the cervical vertebrae and the first thoracic vertebra in man. Folia Morpho (Warsz) 2003;62:357-63.

Nayak S, Vollala VR, Raghunathan D. Total fusion of atlas with occipital bone: a case report. Neuroanatomy 2005;4:39-40.

Nayak S. Asymmetric atlas assimilation and potential danger to the brain stem: a case Report. The Internet Journal of Biology 2008;1(2).

Karau PB, Odula P. Some anatomical and morphometric observaions in the transverse foramina of the atlas among Kenyans. Anatomy Journal of Africa 2013;2:61-6.

Vasudeva N, Kumar R. Absence of foramen transversarium in the human atlas vertebra: a case report. Acta Anat (Basel) 1995;152:230-3.

Nayak BS. Bilateral absence of foramen transversarium in atlas vertebra: a case report. Neuroanatomy 2007;6:28-9.

Taitz C, Nathan H, Arensburg B. Anatomical observations of the foramina transversaria. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 1978;41:170-6.

Hadley LA. Tortuosity and deflection of the vertebral artery. Am J Roentgenology 1958; 80:306-12.

Hyyppa SE, Laasonen EM, Halonen V. Erosion of cervical vertebrae caused by elongated and tortuous vertebral arteries. Neuroradiology 1974;7:49-51.

Taitz C, Nathan H. Some observations on the posterior and lateral bridge of the atlas. Acta Anat (Basel) 1986;127:212-7.