A study on the clinical manifestations and the incidence of benign and malignant tumors in a solitary thyroid nodule

Rahul Chetan V, Veeresalingam B, Kishore Kumar M, Prabhas Teja Durbesula, Pasupuleti Sreenivasa Rao


Tumors are either benign or malignant. The thyroid nodule, which is usually a clinical manifestation of most of the thyroid disorders, is one among them which has been the subject of controversies with divergent opinions and views. Clinical presentation of thyroid nodules varies widely ranging from solitary nodules to benign and malignant tumors. Thyroid nodules accounts up to 8% of the adult population having palpable nodules. However studies on its incidence in the population residing near seacoast are limited. Hence, the present study is carried in an aim to evaluate the clinico-pathological correlation of solitary thyroid nodule and the incidence of malignancy in the population residing at sea coast. The study is conducted in the Narayana Medical College & Hospital (NMCH), which is situated within 10-15 km radius of the seacoast in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, India. In this study, 73 subjects were selected who presented with thyroid swelling which was clinically confirmed as solitary thyroid nodule. Out of 73 cases, 12 cases (16.5%) were found to have malignant lesions with remaining 61 cases (83.5%) being benign lesions. The incidence of malignancy among solitary thyroid nodule subjects is up to 16.5% in the population residing near seacoast. Thus the present study warrants people to consult surgeons for early diagnosis and adequate treatment without being passive as most of these swellings are asymptomatic for long duration.


Benign, Malignant tumors, Solitary thyroid nodule, FNAC, Follicular adenoma, Papillary carcinoma

Full Text:



Robinson E, Horn Y, Hochmann A. Incidence of cancer in thyroid nodules. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1966; 123:1024-6.

Khadilkar UN, Maji P. Histopathological study of solitary nodules of thyroid. K U M J; 2008,6(24): 486-490.

Neki NS, Kazal HL, Solitary Thyroid Nodule-An Insight. J Ind Acad Clin Med 2006; 7(4): 328-33.

Knowlson GTG. The Solitary thyroid nodule. Br J Surg 1971;58: 253-4.

Brown L, Kautounis S. The Thyroid Nodule. Am J Surg 1975;129: 532-6.

Hoffman GL, Thompson NW, Heffron C. The Solitary Nodule. Arch Surg 1972;105:379-85.

Aziz F, Ahmed S, Malik A, Afsar A, Yusuf NW. Malignant tumors of head and neck region a retrospective analysis. J Coll Physicians Surg Pakistan 2001; 11:287-90.

Sadler GP, Clark OH, In: Principles of Surgery: Schwartz, Shires Spencer, Daly, Fischer, Galloway (eds). Seventh Edition June, 1998; 2: 1678-81.

Wartofsky L. Diseases of the thyroid gland. In: Anthony S, Fauci Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ (eds). Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 14th Edition, New York 1998; 2: 2012-35.

Kuma K, Matsuzuka F, Kobayashi A, Hirai K, Morita S, Miyauchi A, Katayama S, Sugawara M.. Outcome of long standing solitary thyroid nodules. World J Surg 1992; 16:583-588.

Kuma K, Matsuzuka F, Yokozawa T Miyauchi A, Sugawara M. Fate of untreated benign thyroid nodules: Results of long-term follow-up. World J Surg 1994;18:495-499.

Refetoff S, Harrison J, Karanfilski BT, et al. Continuing occurrence of thyroid carcinoma after irradiation to the neck in infancy and childhood. N Engl J Med 1975;292:171-175.

Favus MJ, Schneider AB, Stachura ME, Arnold JE, Ryo UY, Pinsky SM, Colman M, Arnold MJ, Frohman LA. Thyroid cancer occurring as a late consequence of head-and-neck irradiation. Evaluation of 1056 patients. N Engl J Med 1976; 294:1019-1025.

Abbass SQ, Aslam M, Farooq M, Rafi M. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in thyroid swellings. Pak J Surg 1999;15:10-12.

Ahmed I, Malik ML, Ashraf M. Pattern of malignancy in solitary thyroid nodule. Biomedia 1999;15:39-42.

Yeung MJ, Serpell JW. Management of the Solitary Thyroid Nodule, The Oncologist 2008, 13:105-112.

Sturgeon C, Clark OH. Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer. Thyroid 2005;15:588-593.

Malchoff CD, Malchoff DM. Familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma.Cancer Control 2006;13:106-110.

Loh KC.Familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma: Ameta-review of case series. Thyroid 1997;7:107-113.

Uchino S, Noguchi S, Kawamoto H, Yamashita H, Watanabe S, Yamashita H, Shuto S. Familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma characterized by multifocality and a high recurrence rate in a large study population. World J Surg 2002; 26: 897-902.

Raza S, Saeed Z, Raza H, Ahmed M. FNAC in the management of solitary thyroid nodule.Professional Med J 2006;13 :596-603.

Sarfraz T, Ullah K, Muzaffar M. The frequency and histological types of thyroid carcinoma in northern Pakistan. Pak Armed Forces Med J 2000;50(2):98-101

Chandanwale S, Singh N, Kumar H, Pradhan P, Gore C, Rajpal M. Clinicopatholological correlation of thyroid nodules. Int J Pharm Biomed Sci 2012, 3(3), 97-102.

Tabaqchali MA, Hasan JM, Johnson ST, Wadhera V. Thyroid aspiration cytology in Newcastle: a six year cytology/histology correlation study. Amr Coll Surg Engl 2000;82:149.

Ergete W, Abebe D. Discordance rate between thyroid FNAC &histopathology diagnosis. Ethiopian J Health Dev. 2002;16:227.

Ananthakrishnan N, Rao KM, Narasimhan R, Veliath AJ. The single thyroid nodule - A South Indian Profile of 503 patients with special reference to incidence of malignancy. Ind J Surg 1971;33:44-51.

Sengupta A, Pal R, Kar S, Zaman FA, Basu M, Pal S. Clinico-pathological correlates of incidentally revealed thyroid swelling in Bihar, India. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2012;4:51-5.

Bhansali SK. Solitary nodule in the thyroid

gland; experience with 600 cases. Ind J Surg 1982; 44:547-61.

Gupta M, Gupta S, Gupta V. Correlation of fine needle aspiration cytology with histopathology in the diagnosis of solitary thyroid nodule. J Thyroid Res 2010;18:1-5.

Psarras A, Papa do Poulus SH, Livadas D, Pharma Kidtis AD, Kontassa DA. The single thyroid nodule. Br J Surg 1972;59:545.

Messaris G, Kyriakov K, Vasilopoulos P, Tountas C. The single thyroid nodule and carcinoma. Br J Surg 1974;61:943.

Liechty RD, Stoffel PT, Zimmerman DE, Silverberg SG. Solitary Thyroid Nodules. Arch Surg 1977; 112:59-61.

Russel CFJ. The management of the solitary thyroid nodule. In: Johnson CD, Taylor I, editors. Recent advances in surgery. Vol. 17. London: Churchill-Livingstone; 1994; 4-16.

Kaplan EL, Sugimoto J, Yang H, Fredland A. Postoperative hypoparathyroidism: Diagnosis and management. Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands. In: Kaplan EL, editor. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1983; 262-74.

Mitra RB, Pathak S, Debashish Guha D, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of thyroid gland and histopathological correlation - revisited. JIMA 2002; 100(6):382-4.

Piromalli D, Martelli G, Delprato I, et al. The role of fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules: analysis of 795 consecutive cases. J Surg Oncol 1992;50:247-50.

Hamburger JL. Diagnosis of thyroid nodules by fine needle biopsy. Use and abuse. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;79:335-9.

Gharib H, Goellner JR, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: A 12 year experience with 11,000 biopsies. Clin Lab Med 1993;13:699.