Prevalence and spectrum of hemoglobinopathies in tertiary care centre in a rural area of Madhya Pradesh

S. K. Nema, Mamta Gupta, Arjun Singh, S. S. Jaiswal, Mohini Kucheria, Swati Raipurkar


Background: Haemoglobinopathies like thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia etc are increasing due to unawareness of rural population. This study indicates type of haemoglobinopathies amongst the patients of a rural based tertiary care hospital in one year and nine months.

Methods: Five hundred ten patients were studied during last one year and nine month for all suspected cases of haemolytic anaemia based on Complete Blood Count, Red cell indices and Peripheral blood smear examination. Sickling test, test for Hb F and haemoglobin electrophoresis with quantification of bands are done in all these cases

Results: Out of all 510 cases of anaemia 461 cases (90.39%) were confirmed to nonhaemolytic anaemia whereas 49 cases (9.60%) had shown abnormal haemoglobin bands on electrophoresis. Out of these 49 cases 29 (59.18%) were Males and 20 (40.81%) were females. Most common Haemoglobinopathy observed was Sickle cell b Thalassaemia 23 (4.50%) followed by b Thalassaemia Trait 9 (1.76%), Sickle Cell trait 7 (1.37%). b Thalassaemia Major 5 (0.98%) & Sickle Cell Disease 5 (0.98%) have equal prevalence. The onset of disease was most prominent in Neonatal to pediatric age group including early adolescent (0-18 years) followed by reproductive age group (19- 45 years). Few cases of old age (46+ years) were detected.

Conclusion: Study provides data on the spectrum & pattern of Haemoglobinopathies in a rural tertiary care centre. Screening of all anemic patients should be done for Haemoglobinopathy and proper Genetic counseling must be given to all cases to prevent incidence of cases in future generation.


Haemoglobinopathy, Haemoglobin electrophoresis, Sickle cell anaemia, Thalassaemia

Full Text:



Balgir RS. The burden of haemoglobinopathies in India and the challenges ahead. Curr Sci 2000; 79: 1536 – 1547.

Balgir RS. The general burden of Haemoglobinopathies with special reference to community health in india of the challenges ahead. India J. Hemat blood Transfus 2002; 20: 2–7.

Angostiniotis M, Modell B, Englezas P, et al. Prevention & control of haemoglobinopathies. Bull world health org 1995; 73: 375–86.

Dacie JV, Lewis SM. Practical Haematology. 10th Ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone 2006.

Daland GA, Castle WB. Simple and rapid method for demonstrating sickling of Red blood cells use of reducing agent. J Lab Clin Med 1948; 53: 1082.

Joshi H, Subbarao SK. Prevalence of G-6 P-D deficiency and sickle cell haemoglobin carriers in malaria endemic tribal dominate districts, Mandla and Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. Indian J Malariol 2001; 38: 99–104.

Uddin MM, Akteruzzaman S, Rahman T, Hasan AKMM, Shekhar HU. Pattern of  thalassaemia and other haemoglobinopathies. A cross –sectional study in Bangladesh. ISRN Hematol 2012; 659191.

Bain BJ. Haemoglobinopathy Diagnosis: Algorithms, lessons & pitfalls. Blood Reviews 2011; 25: 205-213.

Sengupta M. Thalassaemia among the tribal Communities of India. The Internet Journal of biological Anthropology 2008; 1(2): e. DOI: 10.5580/ 9a1.

Chopra GS, Nair V, Gupta PK, Mishra DK, Sharma A, Mathew OP. The Spectrum of Haemoglobinopathy

in a tertiary care hospital of Armed Forces. MJAFI 2008; 64: 311- 4.