A study on oxygen independent fitness (anaerobic capacity) in pre-collegiate boys of Vijayapur, North Karnataka, India
Keywords:Anaerobic capacity, Anaerobic step test, Body mass index, Karnataka
Background: The anaerobic capacity is a useful concept, its application during exercise testing should considerably increase the information gained regarding cardiovascular function in health and disease. The objective was to evaluate oxygen independent fitness (anaerobic capacity) in pre-collegiate boys (age group of 16-18 years) of Vijayapur, North Karnataka, India.
Methods: Eighty seven young adolescent healthy pre-collegiate boys volunteered for this study. The following parameters were recorded: Physical anthropometric parameters: body surface area, body mass index, body fat percentage, Physiological parameters: Blood pressure, physical fitness index test and anaerobic fitness step test. Correlation analysis and Z tests were used to analyze the obtained data.
Results: Physical anthropometric parameters of the subjects were found within normal range. Statistically significant exercise induced rise in blood pressure were observed in physical fitness step test. Anaerobic capacity was correlated with body surface area, body mass index, body fat percentage and pre and post exercise blood pressure. Physical fitness index was not correlated with anaerobic capacity.Conclusions:The physical fitness index was in good category, normal physiological response to exercise but physical fitness index not correlated with anaerobic capacity. Anaerobic capacity was found within normal range in pre-collegiate boys of age 16-18 years in study area. Ideal body mass index may not be possible in this age group.
Kravitz L, Dalleck LC. Physiological factors limiting endurance exercise capacity. IDEA Health & Fitness Association. Advanced sports conditioning for enhanced performance. IDEA Resource Series. 2002:21-7.
Ghosh AK. Anaerobic Threshold: Its Concept and Role in Endurance Sport. Malays J Med Sci. 2004;11:24-36.
Vandewalle H, Peres G, Heller J, Monod H. All out anaerobic capacity tests on cycle ergometers. Eurp J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1985;54:222-9.
Green S. Measurement of anaerobic work capacities in humans. Sports Medicine. 1995;19:32-42.
Martin L. Sports Performance Measurement and Analytics: The Science of Assessing Performance, Predicting Future Outcomes, Interpreting Statistical Models, and Evaluating the Market Value of Athletes. FT Press; 2016.
Martin M, Krystof S, Martina D, Renata V, Ondrej M, Stepan S, et al. Modulation of energy intake and expenditure due to habitual physical exercise. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2016;22:3681-99.
Lamb KL, Brodie DA, Roberts K. Physical fitness and health-related fitness as indicators of a positive health state. Health Promotion International 1988;3:171-82.
DuBois D, DuBois EF. A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known. Arch Intern Med. 1916;17:863-71.
Tanphaichitr V. Clinical needs and opportunities in assessing body composition. Asia pacific J Clin Nutr. 1995;4:23-4.
Deurenberg P, Weststrate JA, Seidell JC. Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: age- and sex-specific prediction formulas. Br J Nutr. 1991;65:105-14.
Das SK, Mahapatra S, Bhattacherya G, Mukherjee D. Determination of physical fitness Index (PFI) with modified Harvard step test (HST) in young Men & women. Ind J Physiol Allied Sci. 1993;47:73-6.
Fernandez-Fernandez J, Ulbricht A, Ferrauti A. Fitness testing of tennis players: How valuable is it?. British journal of sports medicine. 2014;48(Suppl 1):i22-31.
Plowman SA, Smith DL. Anaerobic Metabolism during Exercise. Sports-specific Rehabilitation. 2007:39.
Inbar O, Bar-Or OD. Anaerobic characteristics in male children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1986;18:264-9.
Knuttgen HG. Force, work, power, and exercise. Medicine and science in sports. 1978;10:227-8.
Maughan RJ, Gleeson M. The biochemical basis of sports performance. Oxford University Press; 2010.
Di Prampero PE. The energy cost of human locomotion on land and in water. Int J Sports Med. 1986;7(02):55-72.
Borresen J, Lambert MI. The quantification of training load, the training response and the effect on performance. Sports Medicine. 2009;39(9):779-95.
Haas JD, Brownlie T. Iron deficiency and reduced work capacity: a critical review of the research to determine a causal relationship. J nutrition. 2001;131(2):676S-90S.
Siddiq M, Dhundasi SA, Aslam M. A study on oxygen dependent fitness (aerobic capacity) in pre-collegiate boys of North Karnataka region. Natl J Physiol Pharmac Pharmacol. 2016;6:359-63.
Bera TK, Rajapurkar MV. Body composition, cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power of yogic practitioner. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1993;37:225.
Di Prampero PE, Cerretelli P. Maximal muscular power (aerobic and anaerobic) in African Natives. Ergonomics. 1969;12:51-9.
Margaria R, Aghemo P, Rovelli E. Measurement of muscular power (anaerobic) in man. J Appl Physiol. 1966;21:1662-4.
Greenhaff PL, Timmons JA. 1 Interaction Between Aerobic and Anaerobic Metabolism During Intense Muscle Contraction. Exercise Sport Sci Rev. 1998;26(1):1-30.