Published: 2017-04-26

Prevalence of hypertension and its association with anthropometric parameters in adult population of Raipur city, Chhattisgarh, India

Prem S. Panda, Kamlesh K. Jain, Gopal P. Soni, Shubhra A. Gupta, Srishti Dixit, Jitendra Kumar


Background: Obesity is now an important emerging public health problem in India. It is one of the major risk factor for hypertension. Overweight persons have two to six fold increase in the risk of developing hypertension. This study was carried out with objective to find out prevalence of Hypertension and assess its association with four obesity-related indices- body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR).

Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was done among 640 study subjects of age group 25-59 years during July 2015 to June 2016. Multi stage random sampling method was used. Data collection was done using WHO STEPS instrument V 3.1. Privacy and confidentiality of data was maintained. Data was entered in the Microsoft excel, collected data was checked for its completeness and correctness before data analysis with the help of PSPP software.

Results: Prevalence of hypertension among study subjects was found to be 22.19% (142 out of 640).With respect to body mass index, waist circumference, waist hip ratio and waist height ratio, 4.38%, 64.35%, 85.33%, 76.2% were found to be obese respectively. Hypertension was strongly associated with BMI (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.001), waist hip ratio (p<0.05), waist height ratio (p<0.05). Out of the four anthropometric variables waist hip ratio (WHR) was most strongly associated with hypertension (β=420.236, p=0.007).

Conclusions: The study shows a rising burden of hypertension among study population. As WHR is the best indicator for measuring obesity, so measurement of WHR should be made compulsory in healthy life style clinics along with other parameters.


Adult population, Anthropometric parameters, Hypertension

Full Text:



Lim S, Vos T, Flaxman A, Danaei G, Shibuya K. (2012) A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2224-60.

Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA. (2003) The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the JNC 7 Report. JAMA. 2003;289:2560-72.

National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004;114:555-76.

Hansen ML, Gunn PW, Kaebler DC, Under diagnosis of hypertension in children and adolescents. JAMA. 2007:298:874-81.

Jones A, Charakida M, Falaschetti E, Hingorani AD, Finer N, Masi S, Donald AE, Lawlor DA, Smith GD, Deanfield JE. Adipose and height growth through childhood and blood pressure status in a large prospective cohort study. Hypertension. 2012;59(5):919-25.

WHO. Non communicable diseases in the SouthEast Asia region: situation and response. World Health Organisation, New Delhi. 2011.

Rizwan SA. Hypertension in Indian Tribes. PLOS ONE. 2014;9(5):e95896.

Mukhopadhyay B, Mukhopadhyay S, Majumder PP. Blood pressure profile of Lepchas of the Sikkim Himalayas: epidemiological study. Hum Biol. 1996;68:131-45.

Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Viswanathan V, Viswanathan M, Haffner SM. Risk of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus conferred by obesity and central adiposity in different ethnic groups: a comparative analysis between Asian Indians, Mexican Americans and Whites. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1997;36(2):121-5.

de Moraes SA, Checchio MV, de Freitas ICM. The independent effect of central obesity on hypertension in adults living in Ribeirao Preto, SP, 2007. EPIDCV Project. Brazilian J Epidemiol. 2015;18(1):157-73.

Park SH, Park JH, Song PS, Kim DK, Kim KH, Seol SH, et al. Sarcopenic obesity as an independent risk factor of hypertension. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2013;7(6):420-5.

Redon J, Cea-Calvo L, Moreno B, Monereo S, Gil-Guillen V, Lozano JV, et al. Independent impact of obesity and fat distribution in hypertension prevalence and control in the elderly. J Hypertens. 2008;26(9):1757-4.

Mello RB, Moreira LB, Gus M, Wiehe M, Fuchs FD, Fuchs SC. Central obesity is a risk factor for hypertension independent of body mass index in elderly individuals: Results of a Population-Based study. Circulation. 2011;21:124S.

Rodea-Montero ER, Evia-Viscarra ML, Apolinar-Jimenez E. Waist-to-Height ratio is a better anthropometric index than waist circumference and BMI in predicting metabolic syndrome among obese Mexican adolescents. Int J Endocrinol. 2014;2014:19540.

Lwanga SK. (1991). Sample size determination in health studies. 1991:25. Available from: http:// (Last accessed on 2016 June 19).

Chamukuttan S, Vijay V, Ambadi R. Cut-off values for normal anthropometric variables in Asian Indian adults. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(5):1380-84.

World Health Organization. Non-communicable diseases. WHO; 2014. Available from: http:// (Accessed on 2016 Jun 23).

Midha T, Idris MZ, Saran RK, Srivastava AK, Singh SK.A study on the association between hypertensive status and Anthropometric correlates in the Adult Population of Lucknow District, India Indian J Prev Soc Med. 2009;40(1 and 2):49-54.

Ashwini CA, Roopakala MS, Jagadish S, Kulkarni R. Correlation of anthropometric measurements of ultrasonic measurement of abdominal fat in adults with hypertension. Anatomica Karnataka. 2010;4(2):28-34.

Saxena P, Prakash D. A correlative study on hypertension and anthropometric parameters in rural population of Tehri- Garhwal. Indian J Prev Soc Med. 2014;45(1-2):36.

Kokiwar PR, Gupta SS. Prevalence of hypertension in a rural community of central India. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(4): 950-3.

Kaur P, Radhakrishnan E, Sankarasubbaiyan S, Rao SR, Chennakesavan SK, Rao TV, et al. A comparison of anthropometric indices for predicting hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes in a male industrial population of Chennai, South India. J Ethnicity Dis. 2008;18:31-36.

Dhall M, Gupta S, Bhuker M, Sharma P, Kapoor S. Effectiveness of various anthropometric indices in prediction of cardiovascular risk among adult Jains. Open Anthropol J. 2011;4;33-9.

Valenzuela K, Bustos P. Waist:height ratio as a predictor of risk of hypertension in young adults: is it better indicator that waist circumference. Archivos latinoamericanos de nutricion. 2012;62(3):220-6.

Gupta R, Mehrishi S. Waist-hip ratio and blood pressure correlation in an urban Indian population. J Indian Med Assoc. 1997;95(7):412-5.

Dua S, Bhuker M, Sharma P, Dhall M, Kapoor S. Body mass index relates to blood pressure among adults. North Am J Med Sci. 2014;6(2):89.